POPULATION Rest�of�the�world,�83.3% India,�16.7% AREA Rest�of�the�world,�97.6% India,�2.4% Fig 6.1 : India’s share of world’s area and population country’s population. On the other hand, the Himalayan state Sikkim has a population of just about 0.5 million and Lakshadweep has only 60 thousand people. Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest statein terms of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total population of India (Figure 6.2) Others 51.2% Andhra Pradesh 7.41% W. Bengal Uttar 7.79% Pradesh 16.16%Bihar 8.02% is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world. Only Bangladesh and Japan haveDo You Know higher average population densities than India. Find out the population densities of Bangladesh and Japan. The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq km. Densities vary from 904 persons per sq km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh. A study of the figure 6.3 shows the pattern of uneven distribution of population densities at the state level. Activity Study the figure 6.3 and compare it with figure 2.4 and figure 4.7. Do you find any corelation between these maps? Note the states with population densities below 250 persons per square km. Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in these areas. Which states have density below 100 persons per square km? Assam and most of the Peninsular states have moderate population densities. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils have influenced population densities in these areas. The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall. Identify the three states of the Northern Plains with high population densities. Figure 6.2 : Distribution of Population • What could be the reason of uneven distribution of population in India? India’s Population Distribution by Density Population density provides a better picture of the uneven distribution. Population density POPULATION GROWTHAND PROCESSESOF POPULATION CHANGE Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing. This is the influence of the interaction of the three processes, namely-births, deaths and migrations. CONTEMPORARY INDIA Population Growth Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years. Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year. The absolute numbers added each year or decade is the magnitude of increase. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population (e.g. that of 1991) from the later population (e.g. that of 2001). It is referred to as the absolute increase. The rate or the pace of population increase is the other important aspect. It is studied in per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of 2 per cent per annum means that in a given year, there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. This is referred to as the annual growth rate. India’s population has been steadily increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1028 million in 2001. Table 6.1 : The Magnitude and Rate of India’s Population Growth Year Total Absolute Annual Population Increase in Growth (in millions) the decade Rate (in million) ( % ) 1951 361.0 42.43 1.25 1961 439.2 78.15 1.96 1971 548.2 108.92 2.20 1981 683.3 135.17 2.22 1991 846.4 163.09 2.14 2001 1028.7 182.32 1.93 Table 6.1 and figure 6.4 reveal that from 1951 to 1981, the annual rate of population growth was steadily increasing; which explains the rapid increase in population from 361 million in 1951 to 683 million in 1981. • Table 6.1 reveals that despite the decline in growth rates, the number of people being added every decade is steadily increasing. Why? Since 1981, however, the rate of growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rates declined rapidly. Still 182 million people were added to the total population in the 1990s alone (an annual addition larger than ever before). It is essential to realise that India has a very large population. When a low annual rate is applied to a very large population, it yields a large absolute increase. When more than a billion people increase even at a lower rate, the total numbers being added becomes very large. India’s current annual increase in population of 15.5 million is large enough to neutralise efforts to conserve the resource endowment and environment. The declining trend of the growth rate is indeed a positive indicator of the efforts of birth control. Despite that, the total additions to the population base continue to grow, and India may overtake China in 2045 to become the most populous country in the world. 12 2.5 10 2 8 1.5 6 1 4 0.5 2 Total�Pupulation Annual�Growth 00 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Year Population�in�MillionsAnnual�Growth�Rate�% Figure 6.4 : India’s Population and Population Growth Rates during 1951-2001 CONTEMPORARY INDIA APPENDIX Chapter 6: Population* • Page no.53, column 2, line 17– 20 India’s population as on March 2011 stood at 1,210 million, which accounts for 17.5 per cent of the world population. These 1.21 billion people are unevenly distributed… • Page no.53, column 2, line 24 – 25 The 2011 Census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 199 million… • Page no.54, Figure 6.1 India’s share of population – 17.5 Rest of the world – 82.5 • Page no.54, column 1, line 2 – 4 …Sikkim has a population of just 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has only 64,429 people. • Page no.54, column 1, line 8–10 Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms of area has only 6 per cent of the total population of India. • Page no.54, column 1, Figure 6.2: Distribution of Population Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population * For 2011 only provisional data is available. Hence, data/analysis are provisional. Source: Census of India 2011 POPULATIONAPPENDIX • Page no.54, column 2, line 8 – 12 The population density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per square km. Densities vary from 1,102 persons per square km in Bihar to only 17 persons per square km in Arunachal Pradesh. • Page no.55, Figure 6.3: Density of Population in India * Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India on the 2nd June 2014 after the reorganisation of the state of Andhra Pradesh Fig. 6.3: Density of Population 2011 CONTEMPORARY INDIA

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