44 Resources and DevelopmentAgriculture47AgricultureGurpreet, Madho and Tina were walking through the village where they saw a farmer tilling land. The farmer told them that he was growing wheat and had just added manure to the soil to make it more fertile. He told the children that the wheat would fetch a good price in the mandi from where it would be taken to factories to make bread and biscuits from flour.This transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities. These are primary, secondary and tertiary activities.Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, fishing and gathering are good examples. Secondary activities are concerned with the processing of these resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth are examples of this activity. Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising are examples of tertiary activities.Agriculture is a primary activity. It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. In the world, 50 per cent of persons are engaged in agricultural activity. Two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture.Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity. The land on which the crops are grown is known as arable land (Fig. 4.1). In the map you can see that agricultural activity is concentrated in those regions of the world where suitable factors for the growing of crops exist.Farm SystemAgriculture or farming can be looked at as a system. The important inputs are seeds, fertilisers, machinery and It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew,rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories.The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.Major CropsA large variety of crops are grown to meet the requirement of the growing population. Crops also supply raw materials for agro based industries. Major food crops are wheat, rice, maize and millets. Jute and cotton are fibre crops. Important beverage crops are tea and coffee.Rice: Rice is the major food crop of the world. It is the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water. China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt. In favourable climatic conditions as in West Bengal and Bangladesh two to three crops are grown in a year.Wheat: Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. It thrives best in well drained loamy soil. Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India. In India it is grown in winter.Millets: They are also known as coarse grains and can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils. It is a hardy crop that needs low rainfall and high to Munna Lal also has two buffaloes and few hens. He sells milk in the cooperative store located in the nearby town. He is a member of the co-operative society which also advises him on the type of fodder for his animals, safety measures to protect the health of the livestock and artificial insemination.All the members of the family help him in various farm activities. Sometimes, he takes credit from a bank or the agricultural co-operative society to buy HYV seeds and implements.He sells his produce in the mandi located in the nearby town. Since majority of the farmers do not have lack storage facilities, they are forced to sell the produce even when the market is not favourable to them. In recent years, the government has taken some steps to develop storage facilites.A Farm in the USAThe average size of a farm in the USA is much larger than that of an Indian farm. A typical farm size in the USA is about 250 hectares. The farmer generally resides in the farm. Some of the major crops grown are corn, soyabean, wheat, cotton and sugarbeet. Joe Horan, a farmer in the Midwest USA, in Iowa State owns about 300 hectares of land. He grows corn on his field after making sure that soil and water resources meet the needs of this crop. Adequate measures are taken to control pests that can damage the crop. From time to time he sends the soil samples to a soil testing laboratory to check whether the nutrients are sufficient or not. The results help Joe Horan to plan a scientific fertiliser programme. His computer is linked to the satellite which gives him a precise picture of his field. This helps him to use chemical fertilisers Word OriginThe word agriculture is derived from Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning, cultivation.Fig. 4.1: World Distribution of Arable LandDo you know? AgricultureThe science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming.AgriSericultureCommercial rearing of silk worms. It may supplement the income of the farmer.Seri+ CulturePisciPisciculture Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.VitiViticultureCultivation of grapes.HortiHorticultureGrowing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.Agriculture41Fig 4.6 : A Banana PlantationFig 4.7: Rice CultivationFig 4.8: Wheat HarvestingFig 4.9: Bajra CultivationFig 4.15: An Agricultural Field in IndiaFig 4.16: A Farm in the USAFig 4.17: Spray of Pesticides

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