Practical Practical Practical Practical Geometry We see a number of shapes with which we are familiar. We also make a lot of pictures. These pictures include different shapes. We have learnt about some of these shapes in earlier chapters as well. Why don’t you list those shapes that you know about alongwith how they appear? In this chapter we shall learn to make these shapes. In making these shapes we need to use some tools. We shall begin with listing these tools, describing them and looking at how they are used. S.No. Name and figure Description Use 1. The Ruler A ruler ideally has no To draw line [or the straight markings on it. However, segments and edge] the ruler in your instruments to measure box is graduated into their lengths. centimetres along one edge (and sometimes into inches along the other edge). 2. The Compasses A pair – a pointer on one To mark off end and a pencil on the equal lengths other. but not to measure them. To draw arcs and circles. Pencil Pointer 14.1 Introduction Chapter 14 Practical Practical Practical Practical Geometry 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 275 3. The Divider A pair of pointers To compare lengths. 4. Set-Squares Two triangular To draw pieces – one of them perpendicular has 45°, 45°, 90° and parallel angles at the vertices lines. and the other has 30°, 60°, 90° angles at the vertices. 5. The Protractor A semi-circular To draw device graduated into and measure angles. 180 degree-parts. The measure starts from 0° on the right hand side and ends with 180° on the left hand side and vice-versa. We are going to consider “Ruler and compasses constructions” , using ruler, only to draw lines, and compasses, only to draw arcs. Be careful while doing these constructions. Here are some tips to help you. (a) Draw thin lines and mark points lightly. (b) Maintain instruments with sharp tips and fine edges. (c) Have two pencils in the box, one for insertion into the compasses and the other to draw lines or curves and mark points. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 276 14.2 The Circle Look at the wheel shown here. Every point on its boundary is at an equal distance from its centre. Can you mention a few such objects and draw them? Think about five such objects which have this shape. 14.2.1 Construction of a circle when its radius is known Suppose we want to draw a circle of radius 3 cm. We need to use our compasses. Here are the steps to follow. Step 1 Open the compasses for the required radius of 3cm. Step 2 Mark a point with a sharp pencil where we want the centre of the circle to be. Name it as O. Step 3 Place the pointer of the compasses on O. Step 4 Turn the compasses slowly to draw the circle. Be careful to complete the movement around in one instant. Think, discuss and write How many circles can you draw with a given centre O and a point, say P? EXERCISE 14.1 1. Draw a circle of radius 3.2 cm. 2. With the same centre O, draw two circles of radii 4 cm and 2.5 cm. 3. Draw a circle and any two of its diameters. If you join the ends of these diameters, what is the figure obtained? What figure is obtained if the diameters are perpendicular to each other? How do you check your answer? 4. Draw any circle and mark points A, B and C such that (a) A is on the circle. (b) B is in the interior of the circle. (c) C is in the exterior of the circle. 5. Let A, B be the centres of two circles of equal radii; draw them so that each one of them passes through the centre of the other. Let them intersect at C and D. Examine whether AB and CD are at right angles. 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 277 14.3 A Line Segment Remember that a line segment is bounded by two end-points. This makes it possible to measure its length with a ruler. If we know the length of a line segment, it becomes possible to represent it by a diagram. Let us see how we do this. 14.3.1 Construction of a line segment of a given length Suppose we want to draw a line segment of length 4.7 cm. We can use our ruler and mark two points A and B which are 4.7 cm apart. Join A and B and get AB . While marking the points A and B, we should look straight down at the measuring device. Otherwise we will get an incorrect value. Use of ruler and compasses A better method would be to use compasses to construct a line segment of a given length. Step 1 Draw a line l . Mark a point A on a line l . Step 2 Place the compasses pointer on the zero mark of the ruler. Open it to place the pencil point upto the 4.7cm mark. Step 3 Taking caution that the opening of the compasses has not changed, place the pointer on A and swing an arc to cut l at B. Step 4 AB is a line segment of required length. l 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 278 EXERCISE 14.2 1. Draw a line segment of length 7.3 cm using a ruler. 2. Construct a line segment of length 5.6 cm using ruler and compasses. 3. Construct AB of length 7.8 cm. From this, cut off AC of length 4.7 cm. Measure BC. 4. Given AB of length 3.9 cm, construct PQ such that the length of PQ is twice that of AB . Verify by measurement. (Hint : Construct PX such that length of PX = length of AB ; then cut off XQ such that XQ also has the length of AB .) 5. Given AB of length 7.3 cm and CD of length 3.4 cm, construct a line segment XY such that the length of XY is equal to the difference between the lengths of AB and CD . Verify by measurement. 14.3.2 Constructing a copy of a given line segment Suppose you want to draw a line segment whose length is equal to that of a given line segment AB . A quick and natural approach is to use your ruler (which is marked with centimetres and millimetres) to measure the length of AB and then use the same length to draw another line segment CD . A second approach would be to use a transparent sheet and trace AB onto another portion of the paper. But these methods may not always give accurate results. A better approach would be to use ruler and compasses for making this construction. To make a copy of AB . Step 1 Given AB whose length is not known. A B 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 279 Step 2 Fix the compasses pointer on A and the pencil end on B. The opening of the instrument now gives the length of AB . Step 3 Draw any line l . Choose a point C on l . Without changing the compasses setting, place the pointer on C. Step 4 Swing an arc that cuts l at a point, say, D. Now CD is a copy of AB . EXERCISE 14.3 1. Draw any line segment PQ . Without measuring PQ , construct a copy of PQ . 2. Given some line segment AB , whose length you do not know, construct PQ such that the length of PQ is twice that of AB . 14.4 Perpendiculars You know that two lines (or rays or segments) are said to be perpendicular if they intersect such that the angles formed between them are right angles. In the figure, the lines l and m are perpendicular. 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 280 The corners of a foolscap paper or your notebook indicate lines meeting at right angles. Where else do you see perpendicular lines around you? Take a piece of paper. Fold it down the middle and make the crease. Fold the paper once again down the middle in the other direction. Make the crease and open out the page. The two creases are perpendicular to each other. 14.4.1 Perpendicular to a line through a point on it Given a line l drawn on a paper sheet and a point P lying on the line. It is easy to have a perpendicular to l through P. We can simply fold the paper such that the lines on both sides of the fold overlap each other. Tracing paper or any transparent paper could be better for this activity. Let us take such a paper and draw any line l on it. Let us mark a point P anywhere on l . Fold the sheet such that l is reflected on itself; adjust the fold so that the crease passes through the marked point P. Open out; the crease is perpendicular to l . Think, discuss and write How would you check if it is perpendicular? Note that it passes through P as required. A challenge : Drawing perpendicular using ruler and a set-square (An optional activity). Step 1 A line l and a point P are given. Note that P is on the line l . Step 2 Place a ruler with one of its edges along l . Hold this firmly. Do This 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 281 Step 3 Place a set-square with one of its edges along the already aligned edge of the ruler such that the right angled corner is in contact with the ruler. Step 4 Slide the set-square along the edge of ruler until its right angled corner coincides with P. Step 5 Hold the set-square firmly in this position. Draw PQ along the edge of the set-square. PQ is perpendicular to l . (How do you use the ⊥ symbol to say this?). Verify this by measuring the angle at P. Can we use another set-square in the place of the ‘ruler’? Think about it. Method of ruler and compasses As is the preferred practice in Geometry, the dropping of a perpendicular can be achieved through the “ruler-compasses” construction as follows : Step 1 Given a point P on a line l . Step 2 With P as centre and a convenient radius, construct an arc intersecting the line l at two points A and B. Step 3 With A and B as centres and a radius greater than AP construct two arcs, which cut each other at Q. 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 282 Step 4 Join PQ. Then PQ is perpendicular to l . We write PQ ⊥ l . 14.4.2 Perpendicular to a line through a point not on it (Paper folding) If we are given a line l and a point P not lying on it and we want to draw a perpendicular to l through P, we can again do it by a simple paper folding as before. Take a sheet of paper (preferably transparent). Draw any line l on it. Mark a point P away from l . Fold the sheet such that the crease passes through P. The parts of the line l on both sides of the fold should overlap each other. Open out. The crease is perpendicular to l and passes through P. Method using ruler and a set-square (An optional activity) Step 1 Let l be the given line and P be a point outside l . Step 2 Place a set-square on l such that one arm of its right angle aligns along l . Step 3 Place a ruler along the edge opposite to the right angle of the set-square. Do This 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 283 Step 4 Hold the ruler fixed. Slide the set-square along the ruler till the point P touches the other arm of the set-square. Step 5 Join PM along the edge through P, meeting l at M. Now PM ⊥ l . Method using ruler and compasses A more convenient and accurate method, of course, is the ruler-compasses method. Step 1 Given a line l and a point P not on it. Step 2 With P as centre, draw an arc which intersects line l at two points A and B. Step 3 Using the same radius and with A and B as centres, construct two arcs that intersect at a point, say Q, on the other side. 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 284 Step 4 Join PQ. Thus, PQ is perpendicular to l . EXERCISE 14.4 1. Draw any line segment AB . Mark any point M on it. Through M, draw a perpendicular to AB . (use ruler and compasses) 2. Draw any line segment PQ . Take any point R not on it. Through R, draw a perpendicular to PQ . (use ruler and set-square) 3. Draw a line l and a point X on it. Through X, draw a line segment XY perpendicular to l . Now draw a perpendicular to XY at Y. (use ruler and compasses) 14.4.3 The perpendicular bisector of a line segment Fold a sheet of paper. Let AB be the fold. Place an ink-dot X, as shown, anywhere. Find the image X' of X, with AB as the mirror line. Let AB and XX’ intersect at O. Is OX = OX'? Why? This means that AB divides XX’ into two parts of equal length. AB bisects XX’ or AB is a bisector of XX’ . Note also that ∠AOX and ∠BOX are right angles. (Why?). Hence, AB is the perpendicular bisector of XX’ . We see only a part of AB in the figure. Is the perpendicular bisector of a line joining two points the same as the axis of symmetry? (Transparent tapes) Step 1 Draw a line segment AB . Do This Do This 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 285 Step 2 Place a strip of a transparent rectangular tape diagonally across AB with the edges of the tape on the end points A and B, as shown in the figure. Step 3 Repeat the process by placing another tape over A and B just diagonally across the previous one. The two strips cross at M and N. Step 4 Join M and N. Is MN a bisector of AB? Measure and verify. Is it also the perpendicular bisector of AB ? Where is the mid point of AB ? Construction using ruler and compasses Step 1 Draw a line segment AB of any length. Step 2 With A as centre, using compasses, draw a circle. The radius of your circle should be more than half the length of AB . Step 3 With the same radius and with B as centre, draw another circle using compasses. Let it cut the previous circle at C and D. 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 286 Step 4 Join CD . It cuts AB at O. Use your divider to verify that O is the midpoint of AB . Also verify that ∠COA and ∠COB are right angles. Therefore, CD is the perpendicular bisector of AB . In the above construction, we needed the two points C and D to determine CD . Is it necessary to draw the whole circle to find them? Is it not enough if we draw merely small arcs to locate them? In fact, that is what we do in practice! EXERCISE 14.5 1. Draw AB of length 7.3 cm and find its axis of symmetry. 2. Draw a line segment of length 9.5 cm and construct its perpendicular bisector. 3. Draw the perpendicular bisector of XY whose length is 10.3 cm. (a) Take any point P on the bisector drawn. Examine whether PX = PY. (b) If M is the mid point of XY , what can you say about the lengths MX and XY? 4. Draw a line segment of length 12.8 cm. Using compasses, divide it into four equal parts. Verify by actual measurement. 5. With PQ of length 6.1 cm as diameter, draw a circle. 6. Draw a circle with centre C and radius 3.4 cm. Draw any chord AB . Construct the perpendicular bisector of AB and examine if it passes through C. 7. Repeat Question 6, if AB happens to be a diameter. 8. Draw a circle of radius 4 cm. Draw any two of its chords. Construct the perpendicular bisectors of these chords. Where do they meet? 9. Draw any angle with vertex O. Take a point A on one of its arms and B on another such that OA = OB. Draw the perpendicular bisectors of OA and OB . Let them meet at P. Is PA = PB ? 14.5 Angles 14.5.1 Constructing an angle of a given measure Suppose we want an angle of measure 40°. In Step 2 of the construction using ruler and compasses, what would happen if we take the length of radius to be smaller than half the length of AB ? O 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 287 Here are the steps to follow : Step 1 Draw AB of any length. Step 2 Place the centre of the protractor at A and the zero edge along AB . Step 3 Start with zero near B. Mark point C at 40°. Step 4 Join AC. ∠BAC is the required angle. 14.5.2 Constructing a copy of an angle of unknown measure Suppose an angle (whose measure we do not know) is given and we want to make a copy of this angle. As usual, we will have to use only a straight edge and the compasses. Given ∠A , whose measure is not known. Step 1 Draw a line l and choose a point P on it. Step 2 Place the compasses at A and draw an arc to cut the rays of ∠A at B and C. Step 3 Use the same compasses setting to draw 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 288 an arc with P as centre, cutting l in Q. Step 4 Set your compasses to the length BC with the same radius. Step 5 Place the compasses pointer at Q and draw the arc to cut the arc drawn earlier in R. Step 6 Join PR. This gives us ∠P . It has the same measure as∠A . This means ∠QPR has same measure as ∠BAC . 14.5.3 Bisector of an angle Take a sheet of paper. Mark a point O on it. With O as initial point, draw two rays OA and OB . You get ∠AOB . Fold the sheet through O such that the rays OA and OB coincide. Let OC be the crease of paper which is obtained after unfolding the paper. OC is clearly a line of symmetry for ∠AOB . Measure ∠AOC and ∠COB . Are they equal? OC the line of symmetry, is therefore known as the angle bisector of ∠AOB . Construction with ruler and compasses Let an angle, say, ∠A be given. Step 1 With A as centre and using compasses, draw an arc that cuts both rays of ∠A . Label the points l l Do This l 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 289 In Step 2 above, what would happen if we take radius to be smaller than half the length BC? of intersection as B and C. Step 2 With B as centre, draw (in the interior of ∠A) an arc whose radius is more than half the length BC. Step 3 With the same radius and with C as centre, draw another arc in the interior of ∠A . Let the two arcs intersect at D. Then AD is the required bisector of ∠A . 14.5.4 Angles of special measures There are some elegant and accurate methods to construct some angles of special sizes which do not require the use of the protractor. We discuss a few here. Constructing a 60° angle Step 1 Draw a line l and mark a point O on it. Step 2 Place the pointer of the compasses at O and draw an arc of convenient radius which cuts the line PQ at a point say, A. Step 3 With the pointer at A (as centre), 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 290 How will you construct a 15° angle? now draw an arc that passes through O. Step 4 Let the two arcs intersect at B. Join OB. We get ∠BOA whose measure is 60°. Constructing a 30° angle Construct an angle of 60° as shown earlier. Now, bisect this angle. Each angle is 30°, verify by using a protractor. Constructing a 120° angle An angle of 120° is nothing but twice of an angle of 60°. Therefore, it can be constructed as follows : Step 1 Draw any line PQ and take a point O on it. Step 2 Place the pointer of the compasses at O and draw an arc of convenient radius which cuts the line at A. Step 3 Without disturbing the radius on the compasses, draw an arc with A as centre which cuts the first arc at B. Step 4 Again without disturbing the radius on the compasses and with B as centre, draw an arc which cuts the first arc at C. 2015-16 (11-11-2014) PRACTICAL GEOMETRY 291 How will you construct a 45° angle? Step 5 Join OC, ∠COA is the required angle whose measure is 120°. Constructing a 90° angle Construct a perpendicular to a line from a point lying on it, as discussed earlier. This is the required 90° angle. EXERCISE 14.6 1. Draw ∠POQ of measure 75° and find its line of symmetry. 2. Draw an angle of measure 147° and construct its bisector. 3. Draw a right angle and construct its bisector. 4. Draw an angle of measure 153° and divide it into four equal parts. 5. Construct with ruler and compasses, angles of following measures: (a) 60° (b) 30° (c) 90° (d) 120° (e) 45° (f) 135° 6. Draw an angle of measure 45° and bisect it. 7. Draw an angle of measure 135° and bisect it. 8. Draw an angle of 70o . Make a copy of it using only a straight edge and compasses. 9. Draw an angle of 40o . Copy its supplementary angle. What have we discussed ? This chapter deals with methods of drawing geometrical shapes. 1. We use the following mathematical instruments to construct shapes: (i) A graduated ruler (ii) The compasses (iii) The divider (iv) Set-squares (v) The protractor 2. Using the ruler and compasses, the following constructions can be made: (i) A circle, when the length of its radius is known. (ii) A line segment, if its length is given. (iii) A copy of a line segment. (iv) A perpendicular to a line through a point (a) on the line (b) not on the line. How will you construct a 150° angle? 2015-16 (11-11-2014) MATHEMATICS 292 (v) The perpendicular bisector of a line segment of given length. (vi) An angle of a given measure. (vii) A copy of an angle. (viii) The bisector of a given angle. (ix) Some angles of special measures such as (a) 90o (b) 45o (c) 60o (d) 30o (e) 120o (f) 135o 2015-16 (11-11-2014)