Chapter 5.1 Overview We know that the square of a real number is always non-negative e.g. (4)2 = 16 and (– 4)2 = 16. Therefore, square root of 16 is ± 4. What about the square root of a negative number? It is clear that a negative number can not have a real square root. So we need to extend the system of real numbers to a system in which we can find out the square roots of negative numbers. Euler (1707 - 1783) was the first mathematician to introduce the symbol i(iota) for positive square root of – 1 i.e., i= 5.1.1 Imaginary numbers Square root of a negative number is called an imaginary number., for example, 91−=− 9 = i3, −=−7 17 =i7 5.1.2 Integral powers of i i= −1, i2 = – 1, i3 = i2 i= – i, i4 = (i2)2 = (–1)2 = 1. nTo compute ifor n > 4, we divide nby 4 and write it in the form n= 4m+ r, where mis quotient and ris remainder (0 ≤ r≤ 4) n 4m+r4)m)r)rrHence i= i=(i . (i= (1)m(i= iFor example, (i)39 = i4 × 9 + 3 =(i4)9 . (i)3 = i3 = – i and (i)–435 = i– (4 × 108 + 3) =(i)– (4 × 108) . (i)– 3 11 i =. ==i4108 3 4() i ()i ()i (i) If aand bare positive real numbers, then −×−= − 1 a×− 1 =ab ×biaib =−ab (ii) a. b=abif aand bare positive or at least one of them is negative or zero. However, if aand b, both are negative.5.1.3 Complex numbers (a) A number which can be written in the form a + ib, where a, b are real numbers and i = −1 is called a complex number. (b) If z = a + ib is the complex number, then a and b are called real and imaginary parts, respectively, of the complex number and written as Re (z) = a, Im (z) = b. (c) Order relations “greater than” and “less than” are not defined for complex numbers. (d) If the imaginary part of a complex number is zero, then the complex number is known as purely real number and if real part is zero, then it is called purely imaginary number, for example, 2 is a purely real number because its imaginary part is zero and 3i is a purely imaginary number because its real part is zero. 5.1.4 Algebra of complex numbers (a) Two complex numbers z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id are said to be equal if a = c and b = d. (b) Let z = a + ib and z = c + id be two complex numbers then12z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i (b + d). 5.1.5 Addition of complex numbers satisfies the following properties 1. As the sum of two complex numbers is again a complex number, the set of complex numbers is closed with respect to addition. 2. Addition of complex numbers is commutative, i.e., z + z = z + z3. Addition of complex numbers is associative, i.e., (z + z) + z = z + (z + z)1 221 1 2 31234. For any complex number z = x + i y, there exist 0, i.e., (0 + 0i) complex number such that z + 0 = 0 + z = z, known as identity element for addition. 5. For any complex number z = x + iy, there always exists a number – z = – a – ib such that z + (– z) = (– z) + z = 0 and is known as the additive inverse of z. 5.1.6 Multiplication of complex numbers Let z1 = a + ib and z2 = c + id, be two complex numbers. Then z1 . z2 = (a + ib) (c + id) = (ac – bd) + i (ad + bc) 1. As the product of two complex numbers is a complex number, the set of complex numbers is closed with respect to multiplication. 2. Multiplication of complex numbers is commutative, i.e., z1.z2 = z2.z1 3. Multiplication of complex numbers is associative, i.e., (z1.z2) . z3 = z1 . (z2.z3) 4. For any complex number z = x + iy, there exists a complex number 1, i.e., (1 + 0i) such that z . 1 = 1 . z = z, known as identity element for multiplication. 15. For any non zero complex number z = x + iy, there exists a complex number z 111 aib −such that z ⋅=⋅ z =1, i.e., multiplicative inverse of a + ib = = 2 2. z z aib a ++ b 6. For any three complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 , z1 . (z2 + z3) = z1 . z2 + z1 . z3 and (z + z) . z = z . z + z . z12 31323 i.e., for complex numbers multiplication is distributive over addition. 5.1.7 Let z1 = a + ib and z2( ≠ 0) = c + id. Then z + (ac+bd)(aib bc−ad)z1 ÷ z2 = z 1= ++i22 22 2 cid = c +dc +d 5.1.8 Conjugate of a complex number Let z = a + ib be a complex number. Then a complex number obtained by changing the sign of imaginary part of the complex number is called the conjugate of z and it is denoted by z , i.e., z = a – ib. Note that additive inverse of z is – a – ib but conjugate of z is a – ib. We have : 1. ()z =z 2. z + z = 2 Re (z) , z – z = 2 i Im(z) 3. z = z , if z is purely real. 4. z + z = 0 ⇔ z is purely imaginary 5. z . z = {Re (z)}2 + {Im (z)}2 . 6. (z +z ) =+ z ,( z −z ) =z –z z1 21212 12 ⎛⎞ zz ()(.) =zz ), 1 =1( z ≠0) zz ( )( 7.12 12 ⎜⎟2 z2 ()z2⎝⎠ 5.1.9 Modulus of a complex number Let z = a + ib be a complex number. Then the positive square root of the sum of square of real part and square of imaginary part is called modulus (absolute value) of z and it is denoted by z i.e., z =a2 +b2 In the set of complex numbers z1 > z2 or z1 < z2 are meaningless but z > z or z < z1 2 1 2 are meaningful because and are real numbers.z1z2 5.1.10 Properties of modulus of a complex number 1. z = 0 ⇔ z = 0 i.e., Re (z) = 0 and Im (z) = 0 2. z = z = − z 3. – z ≤ Re (z) ≤ z and – z ≤ Im (z) ≤ z 22 2z = z4. zz = z , zz 11zz = z . z , = (z2 ≠ 0) 5. 12 1 2 z z2 2 2 26. z + z = z + z 2 + 2Re ( zz )1 2 1 2 12 2 27. z1 − z2 = z + z 2 −2Re ( zz 1 2)1 2 8. z + z ≤ z + z1 2 1 2 9. z1 − z2 ≥ z − z1 2 2 2 2)2 2210. az 1 − bz2 + bz1 + az2 = (a +b )( z + z1 2 In particular: 2 2 2)zz + z + z 2 =2( z + z1 − 2 12 1 2 11. As stated earlier multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of a complex number z = a + ib (≠ 0) is aib 1 − z = = 2 2 2z+abz 5.2 Argand Plane A complex number z = a + ib can be represented by a unique point P (a, b) in the cartesian plane referred to a pair of rectangular axes. The complex number 0 + 0i represent the origin 0 ( 0, 0). A purely real number a, i.e., (a+ 0i) is represented by the point (a, 0) onx - axis. Therefore, x-axis is called real axis. A purely imaginary number ib, i.e., (0 + ib) is represented by the point (0, b) on y-axis. Therefore, y-axis is called imaginary axis. Similarly, the representation of complex numbers as points in the plane is known as Argand diagram. The plane representing complex numbers as points is called complex plane or Argand plane or Gaussian plane. If two complex numbers z1 and z2 be represented by the points P and Q in the complex plane, then z1 − z2 = PQ 5.2.1 Polar form of a complex number Let P be a point representing a non-zero complex number z = a + ib in the Argand plane. If OP makes an angle θ with the positive direction of x-axis, then z = r (cosθ + isinθ) is called the polar form of the complex number, where b r = = a2 +b2 and tanθ = . Here θ is called argument or amplitude of z and wez a write it as arg (z) = θ. The unique value of θ such that – π ≤θ ≤π is called the principal argument. arg (z . z) =arg (z) + arg (z)12 12⎛ z1 ⎞ arg ⎜⎟ = arg (z1) – arg (z2)z⎝ 2 ⎠ 5.2.2 Solution of a quadratic equation The equations ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b and c are numbers (real or complex, a ≠ 0) is called the general quadratic equation in variablex. The values of the variable satisfying the given equation are called roots of the equation. The quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 with real coefficients has two roots given –b +D –b –Dand by , where D =b2 – 4ac, called the discriminant of the equation.2a 2a When D < 0, roots of the quadratic equation are non real (or complex). 2. Let α, β be the roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then sum of the roots −b c (α + β) = and the product of the roots ( α . β) = . a a 3. Let S and P be the sum of roots and product of roots, respectively, of a quadratic equation. Then the quadratic equation is given by x2 – Sx + P = 0. 5.2 Solved Exmaples Short Answer Type Example 1 Evaluate : (1 + i)6 + (1 – i)3 Solution (1 + i)6 = {(1 + i)2}3 = (1 + i2 + 2i)3 = (1 – 1 + 2i)3 = 8 i3 = – 8i and (1 – i)3 = 1 – i3 – 3i + 3i2=1 + i – 3i – 3 = – 2 – 2i Therefore, (1 + i)6 + (1 – i)3 =–8i – 2 – 2i = – 2 – 10i 1 xyExample 2 If (x +iy)3 = a + ib, where x, y, a, b ∈ R, show that − = – 2 (a2 + b2)ab1 Solution (x +iy)3 = a + ib ⇒ x + iy = (a + ib)3 i.e., x + iy = a3 + i3 b3 + 3iab (a + ib) = a3 – ib3 + i3a2b – 3ab2 = a3 – 3ab2 + i (3a2b – b3) ⇒ x = a3 – 3ab2 and y = 3a2 b – b3 x yThus a= a2 – 3b2 and b = 3a2 – b2 x ySo, − = a2 – 3b2 – 3a2 + b2 = – 2 a2 – 2b2 = – 2 (a2 + b2).abExample 3 Solve the equation z2 = z , where z = x + iy Solution z2= z ⇒ x2 – y2 + i2xy = x – iy Therefore, x2 – y2 = x ... (1) and 2xy = – y ... (2) 1From (2), we have y = 0 or x = − 2 When y = 0, from (1), we get x2 – x = 0, i.e., x = 0 or x = 1. 1 113 When x = − , from (1), we get y2 = + or y2 = 4, i.e., y = ± .242 2 Hence, the solutions of the given equation are 1 3130 + i0, 1 + i0, −+ i , −−i .2 222 21Example 4 If the imaginary part of z +is – 2, then show that the locus of the pointiz+1 representing z in the argand plane is a straight line. Solution Let z = x + iy . Then 21 2( x++ (2 x++ i2 yz + iy)1 1) == +1 ix( ++ )1 (1 y)iziy −+ ix {(2 x 1) iy {(1 −− ix }++2} y)×= {(1 )} {(1 −−y) ix }−+yix (2x+− + 1 yi (2y −2 y2 −22) x −x) = 221 y 2 yx+ −+ ⎛21z +⎞ 2 y−2 y2 −2x2 −x Thus Im ⎜ ⎟= 22⎝ ⎠ +−+ xiz +11 y 2y ⎛21z +⎞But Im ⎜⎟= – 2 (Given)iz 1⎝ +⎠ 2y −2 y2 −2x2 −x =−2So 221 y 2yx+−+ ⇒ 2y – 2y2 – 2x2 – x = – 2 –2y2 + 4y – 2x2 i.e., x + 2y – 2 = 0, which is the equation of a line. Example 5 If z21−=z 2 +1 , then show that z lies on imaginary axis. Solution Let z = x + iy. Then | z2 – 1 | = | z |2+ 1 x2 −−y212+i xy =x⇒ ⇒ (x2 – y2 –1)2 + 4x2 y2 ⇒ 4x2 = 0 i.e., Hence z lies on y-axis. +iy 2 +1 = (x2 + y2 + 1)2 x = 0 Example 6 Let z and zbe two complex numbers such that12 arg (z1 z2) = π. Then find arg (z1). Solution Given that z1 +iz2 =0 ⇒ z1 = i z2 , i.e., z2 = – i z1 Thus arg (zz) = arg z + arg (– i z) = π1211⇒ arg (– iz12) = π ⇒ arg (– i ) + arg z12 = π()⇒ arg (– i ) + 2 arg (z) = π1 −π ⇒ + 2 arg (z1) = π2 3π⇒ arg (z) =14 Example 7 Let z1 and z2 be two complex numbers such that z1 +iz2 =0 and .+zz =z +z12 1 2 Then show that arg (z1) – arg (z2) = 0. Solution Let z = r (cosθ + i sin θ) and z = r (cosθ + i sin θ)11112222where r1 = , arg ()= 1, r2 =z1θ, arg (z2) = θ2.z1 z2 +zzWe have, = z +z12 1 2 = r1 2= r1 ⇒θ1(cos cos ) r (cos θ+ θ)θ+ θ+ sin =r +r1 222 2 12 ++22rr cos( θ−θ=+ )( r )2 ⇒ cos (θ – θ ) =1rr212 1212 12 – θ2 i.e. arg z1 = arg z2 Example 8 If z1, z2, z3 are complex numbers such that 111 z =z =z = ++ =12 3 , then find the value ofzzz12 3 Solution z =z =z =11 2 3 ++zzz .123 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 81 ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 22 2 1 2 3 1= = =z z z 1 1 22 33 1= = =zz zz zz 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 , ,= = =z z z z z z Given that 1 2 3 1 1 1+ + z z z 1= ⇒ ++zzz =1 , i.e., z++ zz =1123 123 ⇒ ++zzz =1123 Example 9 If a complex number zlies in the interior or on the boundary of a circle of radius 3 units and centre (– 4, 0), find the greatest and least values of z+1. Solution Distance of the point representing zfrom the centre of the circle is (4 i0) =z−−+ z+4 . According to given condition z+≤43. Now z 1+=z+4–3 ≤z+4 +−3 ≤+=633Therefore, greatest value of |z+ 1| is 6. Since least value of the modulus of a complex number is zero, the least value of z+=10. Example 10 Locate the points for which 3 9 which is exterior of circle with centre at originz>⇒2 + yand radius 3 units. Hence 3 < z< 4 is the portion between two circles x2 + y2 = 9 and x2 + y2 = 16. Example 11 Find the value of 2x4 + 5x3 + 7x2 – x+ 41, when x= – 2 – 3 i Solution x+ 2 = – 3 i⇒ x2 +4x+ 7 = 0 Therefore 2x4 + 5x3 + 7x2 – x + 41 = (x2 + 4x+ 7) (2x2 – 3x+ 5) + 6 = 0 × (2x2 – 3x+ 5) + 6 = 6. Example 12 Find the value of P such that the difference of the roots of the equation x2 – Px+ 8 = 0 is 2. Solution Let α, β be the roots of the equation x2 – Px+ 8 = 0 Therefore α + β = P and α . β = 8. 2Now α – β = ± (α + β) – 4αβ 2 −Therefore 2 = ± P32⇒ P2 – 32 = 4, i.e., P = ± 6. Example 13 Find the value of asuch that the sum of the squares of the roots of the equation x2 – (a– 2) x– (a+ 1) = 0 is least. Solution Let α, β be the roots of the equation Therefore, α + β = a– 2 and αβ = – ( a+ 1) Now α2 + β2 =(α + β)2 – 2αβ =(a– 2)2 + 2 (a+ 1) =(a– 1)2 + 5 Therefore, α2 + β2 will be minimum if (a– 1)2 = 0, i.e., a= 1. Long Answer Type Example 14 Find the value of kif for the complex numbers z1 and z2, 2 − 2)1− zz z1 − z2 2= k(1− z 2)(1 − z12 1 2 Solution 2 − 2L.H.S. = 1− zz z1 − z212 = (1− zz) (1 −zz ) − (z− z)( z− z)12 12 1212 = (1− zz ) (1 − zz ) −( − )( zz− )zz12 12 1212 =1 + zzzz − zz − zz 1 122 11 22 2 ⋅ 2 − 2 − 2=1+ z z z z1 2 1 2 2)= (1− z 2) (1 − z1 2 2)z 2 )(1 − z2R.H.S. = k(1 – 1 ⇒ k=1 Hence, equating LHS and RHS, we get k = 1. πExample 15 If z and z both satisfy z + z =2 z −1 arg (z – z) = , then find12124 Im (z1 + z2). Solution Let z = x + iy, z = x + iy and z = x + iy2.11122Then z + z = 2 z −1 ⇒ (x + iy) + (x – iy) = 2 1 iyx −+⇒ 2x = 1 + y2 ... (1) Since z1 and z2 both satisfy (1), we have 2x = 1 + y2 ... and 2x= 1 + y2 11 2 2 ⇒ 2 (x – x) = (y + y) (y – y)121212⎛yy ⎞⇒ 2 = (y1 + y2) ⎜1 −2 ⎟ ... (2) ⎝x −x12 ⎠ Again z1 – z2 = (x1 – x2) + i (y1 – y2) yy1 − 2Therefore, tan θ = , where θ = arg (z – z)x1 −x2 12π yy− π12 ⎛⎞tan = since θ=⇒ ⎜⎟4 x −x 412 ⎝⎠ −yyi.e., 1 = 12 x1 −x2 From (2), we get 2 = y1 + y2, i.e., Im (z1 + z2) = 2 Objective Type Questions Example 16 Fill in the blanks: (i) The real value of ‘a’ for which 3i3 – 2ai2 + (1 – a)i + 5 is real is ________. π(ii) If z =2 and arg (z) = , then z = ________.4 π(iii) The locus of z satisfying arg (z) = is _______.3 (iv) The value of (−−1)n4–3 , where n ∈ N, is ______. 84 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS – MATHEMATICS 1−i(v) The conjugate of the complex number is _____.1+i(vi) If a complex number lies in the third quadrant, then its conjugate lies in the ______. (vii) If (2 + i) (2 + 2i) (2 + 3i) ... (2 + ni) = x + iy, then 5.8.13 ... (4 + n2) = ______. Solution (i) 3i3 – 2ai2 + (1 – a)i + 5 = –3i + 2a + 5 + (1 – a)i = 2a + 5 + (– a – 2) i, which is real if – a – 2 = 0 i.e. a = – 2. ⎛ π π⎞⎛ 11 ⎞ z cos +i sin =2 +i = 2 (1 +i)(ii) z = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎝ 44 ⎠⎝ 22 ⎠ (iii) Let z = x + iy. Then its polar form is z = r (cos θ + i sin θ), where tan θ= y and xπθ is arg (z). Given that θ= . Thus. 3 π ytan = ⇒=x , where x > 0, y > 0.y 33 x Hence, locus of z is the part of y = 3x in the first quadrant except origin. 4–3 n 4n−34n −31−1) () =− i) −i ==− i ( () ()i 3(iv) Here (– − 1 1 i = 3 == 2 =−i −i ii 1−i 1−i 1−i 1+i2 −2i 11 −− 2i =×= ==−i(v) 2 +1+i 1+i 1−i 1−i 11 1−iHence, conjugate of is i. 1+i (vi) Conjugate of a complex number is the image of the complex number about the x-axis. Therefore, if a number lies in the third quadrant, then its image lies in the second quadrant. (vii) Given that (2 + i) (2 + 2i) (2 + 3i) ... (2 + ni) = x + iy ... (1) ⇒ (2 +i) (2 +2 )(2 +3 )...(2 +ni ) =(x+iy =( x−iy ii ) ) i.e., (2 – i) (2 – 2i) (2 – 3i) ... (2 – ni) = x – iy ... (2) Multiplying (1) and (2), we get 5.8.13 ... (4 + n2) = x2 + y2. Example 17 State true or false for the following: (i) Multiplication of a non-zero complex number by i rotates it through a right angle in the anti- clockwise direction. (ii) The complex number cosθ + i sinθ can be zero for some θ. (iii) If a complex number coincides with its conjugate, then the number must lie on imaginary axis. (iv) The argument of the complex number z = (1 +i 3 ) (1 + i) (cos θ + i sin θ) is 7π + θ(v) The points representing the complex number z for which 12 z 1+ 0, and b2 – 4ac is a perfect square, then the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 Solution Column B (i) purely imaginary complex number (ii) purely real complex number (iii) second quadrant (iv) Fourth quadrant (v) may not occur in conjugate pairs (vi) may occur in conjugate pairs (a) ⇔ (ii), because 1 + i2 + i4 + i6 + ... + i20 = 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 + ... + 1 = 1 (which is purely a real complex number) 11 11 i(b) ⇔ (i), because i–1097 = = = == =−i1097 4 2741 + 4274 2()ii× {() } i iii () which is purely imaginary complex number. (c) ⇔ (iv), conjugate of 1 + i is 1 – i, which is represented by the point (1, –1) in the fourth quadrant. 12+i 12+i 1+i 13 13−+ i(d) ⇔ (iii), because = ×= =−+ i , which is1−i 1−i 1+i 2 22 ⎛ 13 ⎞represented by the point −, in the second quadrant.⎜ ⎟⎝ 22 ⎠(e) ⇔ (vi), If b2 – 4ac < 0 = D < 0, i.e., square root of D is a imaginary −±Imaginary Number bnumber, therefore, roots are x = , i.e., roots are in 2a conjugate pairs. (f) ⇔ (v), Consider the equation x2 – (5 + 2) x+ 5 2= 0, where a= 1, b= – (5 + 2), c= 5 2 , clearly a, b, c∈ R. Now D = b2 – 4ac= {– (5 + 2)}2 – 4.1.5 2 = (5 – 2)2. 5 + 2 ± 5 − 2Therefore x== 5, 2 which do not form a conjugate pair.2 41n+ 41n−i − iExample 19 What is the value of ? 2 41n+ 4n− 4n 4ni−i 1 −−i ii iiSolution i, because = 22 1i− 2ii−1 −2 = = == i 22i 2i Example 20 What is the smallest positive integer n, for which (1 + i)2n= (1 – i)2n? ⎛1+i⎞2n )2nSolution n= 2, because (1 + i)2n= (1 – i=⎜=1 ⎝1−i⎟ ⎠ ⇒ (i)2n= 1 which is possible if n= 2 (∴ i4 = 1) Example 21 What is the reciprocal of 3 + zSolution Reciprocal of z= 2 z 3 − 7 i 37 iTherefore, reciprocal of 3 + 7 i= = – 16 1616 Example 22 If z= 3+ i3 and z= 3+ i,then find the quadrant in which12⎛ z⎞ ⎜ 1 ⎟ lies. z⎝ 2 ⎠ z13 + i3 ⎛ 3+ 3 ⎞⎛ 3− 3 ⎞ =+ iSolution = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ z23 + i ⎝ 4 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ which is represented by a point in first quadrant. 88 EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS – MATHEMATICS 512 i + 5 12 i+− Example 23 What is the conjugate of ?512 i − 512 i+− Solution Let 512 + i + 5 12 + i + 512 i− i 5 12 − z = × 5 +12 i − 5 −12 i 5 12 + 5 i+ i −12 512 i 512 i+2 25144 ++− + = 512 + i 512 −+ i 33i3 = = = 0 − i 2i−22 3 Therefore, the conjugate of z = 0 + 2 i Example 24 What is the principal value of amplitude of 1 – i ? Solution Let θ be the principle value of amplitude of 1 – i. Since ⎛π⎞ πtan θ = – 1 ⇒ tan θ = tan − ⇒θ=− ⎜⎟⎝ 4 ⎠ 4 Example 25 What is the polar form of the complex number (i25)3? Solution z = (i25)3 =(i)75 = i4×18+3 = (i4)18 (i)3 = i3 = – i = 0 – i Polar form of z = r (cos θ + i sinθ) ⎧ ⎛π⎞ ⎛π⎞⎫ = 1cos −+i sin ⎨ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜−⎟⎬ ⎩⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠⎭ ππ = cos – i sin22 π Example 26 What is the locus of z, if amplitude of z – 2 – 3i is ?4 Solution Let z = x + iy. Then z – 2 – 3i = (x – 2) + i (y – 3) y −3Let θ be the amplitude of z – 2 – 3i. Then tan θ= x−2 π y −3 ⎛ π⎞tan = since θ= ⇒ ⎜⎟4 x−2 ⎝ 4 ⎠ y −3⇒ 1= i.e. x – y + 1 = 0 x −2 Hence, the locus of z is a straight line. Example 27 If 1 – i, is a root of the equation x2 + ax + b = 0, where a, b ∈ R, then find the values of a and b. −aSolution Sum of roots = (1 – i) + (1 + i) ⇒ a = – 2.1 (since non real complex roots occur in conjugate pairs) b =−i)(1 Product of roots, (1 +i) ⇒ b = 21 Choose the correct options out of given four options in each of the Examples from 28 to 33 (M.C.Q.). Example 28 1 + i2 + i4 + i6 + ... + i2n is (A) positive (B) negative (C) 0 (D) can not be evaluated Solution (D), 1 + i2 + i4 + i6 + ... + i2 n = 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 + ... (–1)n which can not be evaluated unless n is known. Example 29 If the complex number z = x + iy satisfies the condition 11 , thenz +=z lies on (A) x-axis (B) circle with centre (1, 0) and radius 1 (C) circle with centre (–1, 0) and radius 1 (D) y-axis Solution (C), 11 ⇒z +=(x 1) ++iy =1 ⇒ (x +1)2 + y2 = 1 which is a circle with centre (–1, 0) and radius 1. Example 30 The area of the triangle on the complex plane formed by the complex numbers z, – iz and z + iz is: 2(A) 2 (B)z z 2 z(C) (D) none of these 2 Solution (C), Let z = x + iy. Then – iz = y – ix. Therefore, z + iz = (x – y) + i (x + y) 21 zRequired area of the triangle = 2 ( x2 +y2) = 2 Example 31 The equation z +−1 i =z −+1 i represents a (A) straight line (B) circle (C) parabola (D) hyperbola Solution (A), z +−1 i =z −+1 i ⇒ (1 i)z −−+ = (1 i)z −− ⇒ PA = PB, where A denotes the point (–1, 1), B denotes the point (1, –1) and P denotes the point (x, y) ⇒ z lies on the perpendicular bisector of the line joining A and B and perpendicular bisector is a straight line. 2Example 32 Number of solutions of the equation z2 + = 0 isz (A)1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) infinitely many Solution (D), z2 + 2= 0, z ≠ 0z ⇒ x2 – y2 + i2xy + x2 + y2 = 0 ⇒ 2x2 + i2xy = 0 ⇒2x (x + iy) = 0 ⇒ x = 0 or x + iy = 0 (not possible) Therefore, x = 0 and z ≠0 So y can have any real value. Hence infinitely many solutions. ππExample 33 The amplitude of sin +i (1 −cos )is 55 2ππ ππ (A) (B) (C) (D)5 5 1510 π π⎛⎞Solution (D), Here r cos θ = sin and r sin θ = 1 – cos⎜⎟55⎝⎠ π ⎛π⎞1cos 2sin2 ⎜⎟− 5 ⎝10 ⎠=Therefore, tan θ = π ⎛π⎞ ⎛π⎞sin 2sin .cos ⎜⎟ ⎜⎟5 ⎝10 ⎠⎝10 ⎠ ⎛π⎞ π⇒ tan θ=tan ⎜ i.e., θ=⎟⎝10 ⎠ 10 Short Answer Type 1. For a positive integer n, find the value of (1 – i)n 2. Evaluate ∑(in +in+1) , where n∈N . 13 n=1 33⎛1+i ⎞⎛1−i ⎞3. If ⎜ ⎟−⎜ ⎟ = x + iy, then find (x, y).⎝1-i ⎠⎝1+i ⎠ (1+i)2 4. If = x + iy, then find the value of x + y.2 −i 100 ⎛1−i ⎞5. If ⎜⎟ = a + ib, then find (a, b).⎝1+i ⎠ 1+a6. If a = cos θ + i sinθ, find the value of . 1−a 7. If (1 + i) z = (1 – i) z , then show that z = – iz . ⎛11 n ⎜−⎞ ⎟⎝ i ⎠ 8. If z = x + iy , then show that zz + 2 (z + z ) + b = 0, where b ∈ R, represents a circle. z +29. If the real part of is 4, then show that the locus of the point representingz−1 z in the complex plane is a circle. 10. Show that the complex number z, satisfying the condition arg on a circle. 11. Solve the equation z = z + 1 + 2i. ⎛z −1 ⎞π⎜⎟= lies ⎝z +1 ⎠ 4 Long Answer Type 12. If z +1= z + 2 (1 + i), then find z. 13. If arg (z – 1) = arg (z + 3i), then find x – 1 : y. where z = x + iy z −214. Show that = 2 represents a circle. Find its centre and radius.z−3 z −115. If is a purely imaginary number (z ≠ – 1), then find the value of z . z+1 16. z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that z = z and arg (z1) + arg (z2) =1 2 π, then show that z1 = − z2. z −117. If = 1 (z1 ≠ –1) and z2 = 1 , then show that the real part of z2 is zero.z1 z1 +1 18. If z1, z2 and z3, z4 are two pairs of conjugate complex numbers, then find ⎛ z1 ⎞⎛ z ⎞ arg ⎜⎟ + arg ⎜ 2 ⎟ . ⎝ z4 ⎠⎝ z3 ⎠ 19. If z = z = ... = =1, then1 2 zn 11 1 1show that ++ z +...zz + z = ++ +...+ .123 n zz z z12 3 n 20. If for complex numbers zand z, arg (z) – arg (z) = 0, then show that1 212z1 − z2 = z − z1 2 21. Solve the system of equations Re (z2) = 0, z =2. 22. Find the complex number satisfying the equation z + 2 |(z + 1)| + i = 0. 1−i23. Write the complex number z = in polar form.ππ cos + isin 33 24. If z and w are two complex numbers such that zw =1and arg (z) – arg (w) = π , then show that zw = – i.2 Objective Type Questions 25. Fill in the blanks of the following (i) For any two complex numbers z1, z2 and any real numbers a, b, 2 2 az1 −bz 2 +bz1 +az2 = ..... (ii) The value of (1−i)3 (iii) The number is equal to ...............1−i3 (iv) The sum of the series i + i2 + i3 + ... upto 1000 terms is .......... (v) Multiplicative inverse of 1 + i is ................ (vi) If z1 and z2 are complex numbers such that z1 + z2 is a real number, then z2 = .... (vii) arg (z) + arg z (z ≠0) is ............... (viii) If 4z +≤3 , then the greatest and least values of z +1 are ..... and ..... z −2 π(ix) If =, then the locus of z is ............ z +26 5π (x) If z = 4 and arg (z) = , then z = ............6 26. State True or False for the following : (i) The order relation is defined on the set of complex numbers. (ii) Multiplication of a non zero complex number by – i rotates the point about origin through a right angle in the anti-clockwise direction. (iii) For any complex number z the minimum value of z −1 is 1.z + (iv) The locus represented by z 1−=z −i is a line perpendicular to the join of (1, 0) and (0, 1). (v) If z is a complex number such that z ≠0 and Re (z) = 0, then Im (z2) = 0. (vi) The inequality 4z −<−2z represents the region given by x > 3. (vii) Let z1 and z2 be two complex numbers such that +zz=z+z, then12 1 2 arg (z– z) = 0.1 2 (viii) 2 is not a complex number. 27. Match the statements of Column A and Column B. Column A Column B (a) The polar form of i+ 3 is (i) Perpendicular bisector of segment joining (– 2, 0) and (2, 0) (b) The amplitude of –1 + −3 is (ii) On or outside the circle having centre at (0, – 4) and radius 3. 2π (c) If z2+=z−2 , then (iii) 3 locus of zis (d) If z+2i=z−2i, then (iv) Perpendicular bisector of segment locus of zis joining (0, – 2) and (0, 2). ⎛ π π⎞(e) Region represented by (v) 2cos +isin ⎜⎟⎝ 66 ⎠ z+4i≥3 is (f) Region represented by (vi) On or inside the circle having centre z43(– 4, 0) and radius 3 units.+≤ is 12i(g) Conjugate of + lies in (vii) First quadrant1−i (h) Reciprocal of 1 – ilies in (viii) Third quadrant 2 −i 28. What is the conjugate of i2?(1−2) 29. If z=z, is it necessary that z1 = z2?1 2 (a2 +1) 2 30. If = x+ iy, what is the value of x2 + y2?2 −ai 5π31. Find z if = 4 and arg (z) = .z 6 (2 +i)(1+i)32. Find (3 +i) 33. Find principal argument of (1 + i 3 )2 . z −5i = 1.34. Where does z lie, if z +5i Choose the correct answer from the given four options indicated against each of the Exercises from 35 to 50 (M.C.Q) 35. sinx + i cos 2x and cos x – i sin 2x are conjugate to each other for: ⎛ 1 ⎞π(A) x = nπ (B) x = n +⎜⎟⎝ 22 ⎠ (C) x = 0 (D) No value of x 1sin i α−36. The real value of α for which the expression is purely real is :12 sin iα+ (A) (n +1)π (B) (2n + 1) π 2 2 (C) n π (D) None of these, where n ∈N z37. If z = x + iy lies in the third quadrant, then also lies in the third quadrant ifz(A) x > y > 0 (B) x < y < 0 (C) y < x < 0 (D) y > x > 0 38. The value of (z + 3) ( z + 3) is equivalent to (A) z +3 2 (B) z −3 (C) z2 + 3 (D) None of these ⎛1+i ⎞x 39. If ⎜ = 1, then ⎝1−i ⎟ ⎠ (A) x = 2n+1 (B) x = 4n (C) x = 2n (D) x = 4n + 1, where n ∈N ⎛34ix−⎞40. A real value of x satisfies the equation ⎜ ⎟=α− iβ (,αβ∈R)34ix⎝+ ⎠ if α2 + β2 = (A) 1 (B)– 1 (C)2 (D) – 2 41. Which of the following is correct for any two complex numbers z1 and z2? (A) zz = z z (B) arg (zz) = arg (z). arg (z)12 1 2 1212 (C) z +z = z +z (D) z +z ≥ z −z12 1 2 12 1 2 42. The point represented by the complex number 2 – i is rotated about origin through πan angle in the clockwise direction, the new position of point is:2 (A) 1 + 2i (B) –1 – 2i (C) 2 + i (D) –1 + 2 i 43. Let x, y ∈ R, then x + iy is a non real complex number if: (A) x = 0 (B) y = 0 (C) x ≠0 (D) y ≠0 44. If a + ib = c + id, then (A) a2 + c2 = 0 (B) b2 + c2 = 0 (C) b2 + d2 = 0 (D) a2 + b2 = c2 + d2 +iz45. The complex number z which satisfies the condition =1 lies on−iz(A) circle x2 + y2 = 1 (B) the x-axis (C) the y-axis (D) the line x + y = 1. 46. If z is a complex number, then 22 2z > z z = z(A) 2 (B) 22 2z < z z ≥ z(C) 2 (D) 47. +zz = z + z is possible if12 1 2 1 (A) z2 = z1 (B) z2 = z1 (C) arg (z1) = arg (z2) (D) z = z1 2 1c+i osθ48. The real value of θ for which the expression is a real number is: (A) nπ+π 4 π(C) 2nπ±2 49. The value of arg (x) when x< 0 is: (A) 0 (C) π 7 −z50. If f(z) = , where z= 1 + 2i, then1−z2 z(A) (C) 2 2 z 12i cosθ− nπ(B) n (1) π+ − 4 (D) none of these. π (B) (D) none of these ()2 fz is (B) z (D) none of these.

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