GlossaryFig. 5.1: Water CycleCondensationPrecipitationRun offEvaporation5 WaterWhen you think of water, what images come to yourmind? You think of rivers, the waterfalls, the pitter patterof raindrops, water in your taps... Children love to floatpaper boats in rain puddles. By noon the puddles vanish.Where does the water go?The sun’s heat causes evaporation of water vapour.When the water vapour cools down, it condenses andforms clouds. From there it may fall on the land or seain the form of rain, snow or sleet.The process by which water continually changes itsform and circulates between oceans,atmosphere and land is knownas the water cycle (Fig 5.1).Our earth is like aterrarium. The same waterthat existed centuries agostill exists today. Thewater used to irrigate afield in Haryana mayhave flowed down theAmazon River ahundred years ago.The major sourcesof fresh water are therivers, ponds,springs andglaciers. Theocean bodies andthe seas containsalty water. Thewater of theoceans is salty orsaline as itcontains largeTerrarium: It is anartificial enclosure forkeeping small houseplants.ActivityFill one-fourth of a bigjar with soil andpress it well. Put athin layer of humuson top of it. Plant thelargest plants firstand then arrange thesmaller ones aroundthem. Spray thearrangement withwater and close thejar. The water thatevaporates from theleaves and soilcondenses and fallsback in the form ofdrops of water.A TerrariumMake your ownTerrarium2015-16 (12-01-15)Fig. 5.2: World – Major Seas, Lakes and RiversWATER 31amount of dissolved salts. Most of the salt is sodiumchloride or the common table salt that you eat.2015-16 (12-01-15)32 OUR ENVIRONMENTDo you know?ActivityDistribution of fresh water1 Drop = rivers9 Spoons =icecaps2 Spoons =ground water½ Spoons =fresh water lakesTake 2 litres of water. Let it represent the totalwater on the surface of the earth. Measure out12 spoons of water from this vessel into anotherbowl. The water that is left behind in the vesselrepresents the salty water found in oceans andseas. This water is obviously not fit forconsuming. It is saline (contains salts).The 12 spoons of water that was taken in abowl is the total amount of fresh water on earth.The figure shows us the distribution of this freshwater. See for yourself how much water canactually be used by you.Do you know?Dead sea in Israel hassalinity of 340 gramsper litre of water.Swimmers can floatin it because theincreased salt contentmakes it dense.Oceans : 97.3Ice-caps : 02.0Ground water : 0.68Fresh water lakes : 0.009Inland seas andsalt lakes : 0.009Atmosphere : 0.0019Rivers : 0.0001100.00Saline WaterFresh WaterSalinity is theamount of salt ingrams present in1000 grams of water.The average salinityof the oceans is 35parts per thousand.DISTRIBUTION OF WATER BODIESWe all know that three-fourth of the earth surface iscovered by water. If there is more water than land onthis earth, why do so many countries face water scarcity?Is all the water on earth available to us? The followingtable gives the distribution of water in percentage.Water distribution can be demonstrated by a simpleactivity (see activity box).Water is absolutely essential for survival. Water alonecan quench our thirst when we are thirsty. Now don’tyou think we are wasting a precious resource when weuse water carelessly?2015-16 (12-01-15)WATER 33ActivityOCEAN CIRCULATIONThere is something magical about walking bare feeton the seashore. The wet sand on the beach, the coolbreeze, the seabirds, the smell of the salt in the airand music of the waves; everything is so fascinating.Unlike the calm waters of ponds and lakes, ocean waterkeeps moving continuously. It is never still. Themovements that occur in oceans can be broadlycategorised as: waves, tides and currents.Do you know?March 22 iscelebrated as WorldWater Day when theneed to conservewater is reinforced indifferent ways.• Why is water important for us?• Suggest some ways in which water can be conserved (a) in your home(b) in your schoolFig. 5.3: Pacific Ocean2015-16 (12-01-15)34 OUR ENVIRONMENTWavesWhen you are playing throw ball on the beach and theball falls into the water, what happens? It is fun to watchhow the ball gets washedback to the shore by thewaves. When the water on thesurface of the ocean rises andfalls alternately, they arecalled waves.Do you know?Tsunami is aJapanese word thatmeans “Harbourwaves” as theharbours getdestroyed wheneverthere is tsunami.TSUNAMI – THE EARTH’S PANDEMONIUMTsunami or the harbour wave struck havoc in the Indian Ocean on the26 December 2004. The wave was the result of the earthquake that hadits epicenter close to the western boundary of Sumatra. The magnitudeof the earthquake was 9.0 on the Richter scale. As the Indian platewent under the Burma plate, there was a sudden movement of the seafloor, causing the earthquake. The ocean floor was displaced by about10 – 20m and tilted in a downwardly direction. A huge mass of oceanwater flowed to fill in the gap that was being created by the displacement.This marked the withdrawal of the water mass from the coastlines ofthe landmasses in the south and southeast Asia. After thrusting of theIndian plate below the Burma plate, the water mass rushed back towardsthe coastline. Tsunami travelled at a speed of about 800km. per hour,comparable to speed of commercial aircraft and completely washed awayDo you know?Waves are formedwhen winds scrapeacross the oceansurface. The strongerthe wind blows, thebigger the wavebecomes.Fig. 5.4: WavesDuring a storm, the winds blowing at very high speedform huge waves. These may cause tremendousdestruction. An earthquake, a volcanic eruption orunderwater landslides can shift large amounts of oceanwater. As a result a huge tidal wave called tsunami, thatmay be as high as 15m., is formed. The largest tsunamiever measured was 150m. high. These waves travel at aspeed of more than 700 km. per hour. The tsunami of2004 caused wide spread damage in the coastal areas ofIndia. The Indira point in the Andaman and Nicobarislands got submerged after the tsunami.2015-16 (12-01-15)WATER 35some of the islands in the Indian ocean. The Indira point in the Andamanand Nicobar islands that marked the southernmost point of India gotcompletely submerged. As the wave moved from earthquake epicenterfrom Sumatra towards the Andaman islands and Sri Lanka the wavelength decreased with decreasing depth of water. The travel speed alsodeclined from 700-900km. per hour to less than 70km. per hour. Tsunamiwaves travelled upto a depth of 3 km. from the coast killing more than10,000 people and affected more than lakh of houses. In India, theworst affected were the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,Kerala, Puducherry and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.While the earthquake cannot be predicted in advance, it is possibleto give a three-hour notice of a potential tsunami. Such early warningsystems are in place across the Pacific ocean, but not in the IndianOcean. Tsunamis are rare in the Indian Ocean as the seismic activityis less as compared to the Pacific.Destruction caused by tsunami on Tamil Nadu CoastThe tsunami that ravaged the South and South east Asian coasts inDecember 2004, is the most devastating tsunami in the last severalhundred years. The large damage caused to life and property wasprimarily a result of lack of monitoring, the early warning systems andknowledge among the coast dwellers of Indian ocean.The first indication that tsunami is approaching is the rapidwithdrawal of water from the coastal region, followed by destructivewave. When this happened on the coast, instead of people going to highground, they started assembling at the coast to view the miracle. As aconsequence there was a large casualty of curious onlookers when thegigantic wave (tsunami) struck.TidesThe rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in aday is called a tide. It is high tide when water coversmuch of the shore by rising to its highest level. It islow tide when water falls to its lowest level and recedesfrom the shore.2015-16 (12-01-15)36 OUR ENVIRONMENTThe strong gravitational pullexerted by the sun and the moonon the earth’s surface causes thetides. The water of the earth closerto the moon gets pulled underthe influence of the moon’sgravitational force and causes hightide. During the full moon and newmoon days, the sun, the moon andthe earth are in the same line andthe tides are highest. These tidesare called spring tides. But whenthe moon is in its first and lastquarter, the ocean waters get drawnin diagonally opposite directions bythe gravitational pull of sun andearth resulting in low tides. Thesetides are called neap tides (Fig. 5.5).High tides help in navigation.They raise the water level close tothe shores. This helps the ships toarrive at the harbour more easily.The high tides also help in fishing.Many more fish come closer to theshore during the high tide. This enables fishermento get a plentiful catch. The rise and fall of water dueto tides is being used to generate electricity insome places.OCEAN CURRENTSOcean currents are streams of water flowing constantlyon the ocean surface in definite directions. The oceancurrents may be warm or cold (Fig. 5.6). Generally,the warm ocean currents originate near the equatorand move towards the poles. The cold currents carrywater from polar or higher latitudes to tropical or lowerlatitudes. The Labrador Ocean current is cold currentwhile the Gulf Stream is a warm current. The oceancurrent influence the temperature conditions of thearea. Warm currents bring about warm temperatureover land surface. The areas where the warm and coldcurrents meet provide the best fishing grounds of theActivityFill three-fourths of abucket with tapwater. Heat the waterby putting animmersion rod on oneside of the bucket. Onthe other sideintroduce an ice trayjust removed from thefreezer. Add a drop ofred ink to observe thepath of current by theprocess of convection.Fig. 5.5: Spring Tides and Neap TideSpring TideSun EarthMoonSun EarthMoonSun EarthMoonNeap Tide2015-16 (12-01-15)WATER 37ExercisesFig. 5.6: Ocean Currentsworld. Seas around Japan and the eastern coast ofNorth America are such examples. The areas where awarm and cold current meet also experience foggyweather making it difficult for navigation.1. Answer the following questions.(i) What is precipitation?(ii) What is water cycle?(iii) What are the factors affecting the height of the waves?(iv) Which factors affect the movement of ocean water?(v) What are tides and how are they caused?(vi) What are ocean currents?2. Give reasons.(i) Ocean water is salty.(ii) The quality of water is deterioting.2015-16 (12-01-15)38 OUR ENVIRONMENT3. Tick the correct answer.(i) The process by which water continually changes its form and circulatesbetween oceans, atmosphere and land(a) Water cycle (b) Tides (c) Ocean currents(ii) Generally the warm ocean currents originate near(a) Poles (b) Equator (c) None of these(iii) The rythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called(a) Tide (b) Ocean current (c) Wave4. Match the following.(i) Caspian Sea (a) Largest lake(ii) Tide (b) Periodic rise and fall of water(iii) Tsunami (c) Strong seismic waves(iv) Ocean currents (d) Streams of water moving along definite paths(e) Water cycle5. For fun.Be a Detective(i) The name of one river is hidden in each of the sentences below. Spot it.Example: Mandira, Vijayalakshmi and Surinder are my best friendsAnswer: Ravi(a) The snake charmer’s bustee, stables where horses are housed, andthe piles of wood, all caught fire accidentally. (Hint: Another name forRiver Brahmputra)(b) The conference manager put pad, material for reading and a pencil foreach participant. (Hint: A distributary on the Ganga-Brahmputra delta)(c) Either jealousy or anger cause a person’s fall (Hint: Name of a juicy fruit!)(d) Bhavani germinated the seeds in a pot (Hint: Look for her in West Africa)(e) “I am a zonal champion now” declared the excited athlete. (Hint: Theriver that has the biggest basin in the world)(f) The tiffin box rolled down and all the food fell in dusty potholes. (Hint:Rises in India and journeys through Pakistan)(g) Malini leaned against the pole when she felt that she was going to faint.(Hint: Her delta in Egypt is famous)(h) Samantha mesmerised everybody with her magic tricks. (Hint: Londonis situated on her estuary)(i) “In this neighbourhood, please don’t yell! Owners of these houses liketo have peace”. Warned my father when we moved into our new flat”.(Hint: colour!)(j) ‘Write the following words, Marc!’ “On”, “go”, “in”…….. said the teacherto the little boy in KG Class. (Hint: Rhymes with ‘bongo’)Now make some more on your own and ask your classmates to spot thehidden name. You can do this with any name: that of a lake, mountains,trees, fruits, school items etc.Carry on Detective(ii) With the help of an atlas, draw each river which you discoverd inFor fun (i), on an outline map of the world.2015-16 (12-01-15)

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