Let’s Do Take a ball to represent the earth and a lighted candle to represent the sun. Mark a point on the ball to represent a town X. Place the ball in such a way that the town X is in darkness. Now rotate the ball from left to right. As you move the ball slightly, the town will have its sunrise. As the ball continues to move, the point X gradually gets away from the sun. This is sunset. What would happen if the earth did not rotate? The portion of the earth facing the sun would always experience day, thus bringing continuous warmth to the region. The other half would remain in darkness and be freezing cold all the time. Life would not have been possible in such extreme conditions. The second motion of the earth around the sun in its orbit is called revolution. It takes 365� days (one year) to revolve around the sun. We consider a year as consisting of 365 days only and ignore six hours for the sake of convenience. Six hours saved every year are added to make one day (24 hours) over a span of four years. This surplus day is added to the month of February. Thus every fourth year, February is of 29 days instead of 28 days. Such a year with 366 days is called a leap year. Find out when will the next leap year be? From the Figure 3.3, it is clear that the earth is going around the sun in an elliptical orbit. Notice that throughout its orbit, the earth is inclined in the same direction. A year is usually divided into summer, winter, spring and autumn seasons. Seasons change due tothe change in the position of the earth around the sun. MOTIONS OF THE EARTH Let’s Do Do you know how to draw an ellipse? Take a pencil, two pins and a loop of thread. Now fix these pins on a paper as shown in the figure. Put the loop on the paper enclosing these two pins inside the loop. Now hold the pencil and draw the line keeping the thread tight and moving the pencil along it. The figure represents an ellipse. Look at the Figure 3.3. You will see that on 21st June, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. The rays of the sun fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer. As a result, these areas receive more heat. The areas near the poles receive less heat as the rays of the sun are slanting. The North Pole is inclined towards the sun and the places beyond the Arctic Circle experience continuous daylight for about six months. Since a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere is getting light from the sun, it is summer in the regions north of the equator. The longest day and the shortest night at these places occur on 21st June. At this time Let’s Do in the Southern Hemisphere all these conditions are To understand reversed. It is winter season there. The nights are longer than the days. This position of the earth is called thethe earth’s inclination in Summer Solstice. the same direction, draw On 22nd December, the Tropic of Capricorn receivesa big ellipse on the ground direct rays of the sun as the South Pole tilts towardsand take a flag with a it. As the sun’s rays fall vertically at the Tropic ofstick. Stand anywhere on the line of the ellipse. Capricorn (23�° S), a larger portion of the Southern Point your flag to a fixed Hemisphere gets light. Therefore, it is summer in the point far away like on a Southern Hemisphere with longer days and shorter tree-top. Now move along nights. The reverse happens in the Northernthe ellipse keeping your Hemisphere. This position of the earth is called theflag always pointing Winter Solstice. Do you know that Christmas istowards that fixed point. celebrated in Australia in the summer season?In this way, the axis of the earth remains inclined On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of permanently in the same the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of position. The revolution of the poles is tilted towards the sun; so, the whole earth the earth and the experiences equal days and equal nights. This is calledinclination of the earth’s an equinox. axis in a fixed direction On 23rd September, it is autumn season in thecause seasons. Northern Hemisphere and spring season in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite is the case on 21st March, THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT when it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. Thus, you find that there are days and nights and changes in the seasons because of the rotation and revolution of the earth respectively. 1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) What is the angle of inclination of the earth’s axis with its orbital plane? (b) Define rotation and revolution. (c) What is a leap year? (d) Differentiate between the Summer and Winter Solstice. (e) What is an equinox? (f) Why does the Southern Hemisphere experience Winter and Summer Solstice in different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere? (g) Why do the poles experience about six months day and six months night? 2. Tick the correct answers. (a) The movement of the earth around the sun is known as (i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Inclination (b) Direct rays of the sun fall on the equator on (i) 21 March (ii) 21 June (iii) 22 December (c) Christmas is celebrated in summer in (i) Japan (ii) India (iii) Australia (d) Cycle of the seasons is caused due to (i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Gravitation 3. Fill in the blanks. (a) A leap year has _______________ number of days. (b) The daily motion of the earth is _______________. (c) The earth travels around the sun in ______________ orbit. (d) The sun’s rays fall vertically on the Tropic of ___________ on 21st June. (e) Days are shorter during ___________ season. MOTIONS OF THE EARTH 1. Make a drawing to show the inclination of the earth. 2. Record the timings of sunrise and sunset at your place taking help from your local newspaper on the 21st of each month and answer the following : (a) In which month are the days the shortest? (b) In which months are the days and nights nearly equal? 1. Draw different shapes of ellipses by placing two pins nearer and farther using the same loop of thread. Notice when the ellipse becomes circular. 2. On any sunny day, take a straight stick that is one metre long. Find out a clean and level place on the ground. Place this stick into the ground where it casts a distinctive (sharp) shadow. Step (1): Mark the tip of the shadow with a stone or a twig or by any other means. The first shadow mark is always towards the west. See after 15 minutes and mark the tip of the shadow again. By then it would have moved a few centimetres away. Now join the two points and you have an approximate east-west line. Step (2) : Stand with the first mark to your left and the second mark to your right you are now facing north. This fact is true everywhere on the earth because the earth rotates in west to east direction. An alternative method is more accurate but requires more time. Set up your shadow stick and mark the first shadow in the morning. Use a piece of string to draw a clean arc through this mark around the stick. At mid-day, the shadow will shrink or disappear. In the afternoon, it will lengthen again and at the point where it touches the arc, make a second mark. Draw a line through the two marks to get an accurate east-west line. THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

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