Today, we were going on a school trip to the Adalaj stepwell (baoli ), about eighteen kilometres from Ahmedabad. We began counting the vehicles on the road. Some of us counted the bicycles, others counted the buses, cars, and motorcycles. Abraham, who was counting bicycles, soon got bored. There were hardly any bicycles on this highway. Screeeech! The driver suddenly braked at the red light. It was a big crossing, and we could see the traffic lined up on all sides. Honk, honk, the sound of loud horns, and smoke coming out of the vehicles! May be that is why a little boy in a rickshaw was coughing so much. I smelt something, familiar. I remembered this smell – it came from Baba’s tractor in the village. Look at the picture and write • What are the different kinds of vehicles that you can see? • What do you think they need as fuel? • Which of the vehicles do you think give off smoke? Put a red mark on those. Tell • Do you ride a bicycle? If yes, where all do you go on it? • How do you come to school? • How do your family members go to work from home? • What problems can we have from smoke coming out of On the petrol pump After sometime our bus stopped at a petrol pump. There was a long queue. It seemed as if we would have a long wait. We all got down from the bus and started looking around the petrol pump. We saw many large boards and posters. We could not understand why it was written that petrol and diesel will not last forever. We thought of asking an uncle who works at the petrol pump. Abraham : Uncle, from where do we get petrol and diesel? Uncle (who works at the petrol pump) : From deep, deep down under the ground. Manju : But how does it get made there? Uncle: It is formed naturally, but very slowly. It is not made by a human being or a machine. Abraham : Then we don't need to buy it. We can take it out ourselves using a borewell, like we pump out water! Uncle : It is not found everywhere, but only at a few places in our country. We need big machines to pump it out and clean it. 112 Looking Around Find Out • Which states of India have oil fields? • Besides oil, what else is found deep inside the earth? They discuss further... Divya : Is petrol going to finish? The poster said that petrol is not going to last forever. Uncle : It does not get made as fast as we take it out. It takes lakhs of years for it to be formed under the earth. Abraham : How will vehicles run if the oil finishes? Manju : On CNG. I had seen on TV that vehicles which run on CNG give less smoke. Uncle (laughing) : That too comes from below the earth. It is also limited. Divya : Electricity can be used to run vehicles. I have seen an electric bicycle. Abraham : We will have to do something. Or else, how will we travel when we grow up? Divya : If fewer vehicles run on the road my dadi (grandmother) would be happy. She says, “Look! vehicles line up like ants. What will you do when you grow up?” Manju : See, only one or two people are sitting in these cars. Why doesn’t everyone use a bus? Abraham : That will save petrol. One bus can carry many people. Manju : When I grow up I will invent a car that runs on sunlight. Then we won't have to worry about it getting finished. We can use it as much as we want! • What kinds of problems will we face, if the number of vehicles keep on increasing? For example, more traffic on the road. Talk to your elders and write about it. • Manju said, “Why doesn't everyone use a bus?” What do you think, why don’t people travel by buses? • Suggest some ways to deal with the problems arising out of the growing number of vehicles. Find out and write How much oil? Scooter Car Tractor How much petrol/diesel can be filled at a time? How far can it go on one litre of petrol/diesel? The rates of petrol are different in each city. The rates of petrol and diesel in Chennai are given here. Look at the table and answer the questions. Oil Rate of one litre in 2002 Rate of one litre in 2007 Petrol Rs 28 Rs 47 Diesel Rs 18 Rs 33 • In years the rate of petrol went up by rupees. The rate of diesel increased by rupees. • What was the difference in the rates of petrol and diesel in the year 2007? Find out • What is the price of petrol and diesel in your area? • Why are the prices of petrol and diesel going up? • In one month how much petrol and diesel is used in your home? What is it used for? What if it Finishes...? 115 • One poster is given here. For dry cleaning For lighting As petrol, diesel or aeroplane fuel Where am I used? As kerosene and LPG For making To run machines plastic and paints “Save Fuel, Make it a Habit” See the poster and write • Where all is oil used? • Where is diesel used? Find out. Divya wrote a poem and read it out to her friends. Read and discuss it. week in your village or town? • Suggest some ways to save oil. Wood for chulha Durga lives in a village in Haryana. Everyday she spends many hours collecting wood for the chulha (stove). Her daughter also has to help her in this. For the past three months she has a cough. There is a lot of smoke when damp wood is burnt. But Durga does not have any other option. When there is not enough money to buy food, where will there be money to buy wood? Discuss • Have you ever collected dry wood or made cow dung cakes? How are they made? • Do you know anyone who collects dry wood or leaves to be used for lighting a chulha? What if it Finishes...? 117 • Who cooks food in your family? What about other families in your area? • If they cook food using wood or upla (cow dung cakes), what difficulties do they face due to smoke? • Can Durga use anything else instead of wood? Why not? Today, about two-third (2/3) people in our country use uple, wood and dry twigs, etc. These are used not only for cooking food but also for keeping warm, for heating water and for lighting. Many other things are used for all activities at home – kerosene, LPG, coal, electricity, etc. Kancha had seen a bar chart in a book. The chart shows the number of houses out of 100 that use each type of fuel. It also shows the use of which fuel has increased and which fuel has decreased over the past twenty years. Change in fuel use over twenty years How many houses out of 100 use it100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Year 1976 How many houses out of 100 use it100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Year 1996 – In year 1976, out of 100 how many houses used uple and wood? – Which was the fuel used the least in 1976? – In 1976, LPG and kerosene were used in______houses and in 1996 this increased to______. This means that in twenty years their use increased by________%. 118 Looking Around – Out of 100 how many houses were using electricity in 1996? – Which fuel was used the least in 1996? What percentage of houses used it in the year 1976? Find out from your elders • When they were young what was then used to cook food at home? • In the past 10 years use of which cooking fuel has increased in your area? Use of which fuel has decreased? • Guess the use of which fuel would increase and which would decrease in the next 10 years. What if it Finishes...? 119

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