Glossary Advertising Agency: An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising and sometimes other forms of promotion for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client’s products or services. AdvertisingStrategy:Anadvertisingstrategyisaplantoreach and persuade a customer to buy a product or a service. The basic elements of the plan are 1. the product itself and its advantages, 2. the customer and his or her characteristics, 3. the relative advantages of alternative routes whereby the customer can be informed of the product, and 4. the optimisation of resulting choices given budgetary constraints. In effect this means that aims must be clear, the environment must be understood, the means must be ranked, and choices must be made based on available resources. Effective product assessment, market definition, media analysis, and budgetary choices result in an optimum plan. Advertorials: An advertorial is an advertisement written in the form of an objective article, and presented in a printed publication—usually designed to look like a legitimate and independent news story. Aesthetics: Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. Alignment: Alignment is the adjustment of an object in relation with other objects, or a static orientation of some object or set of objects in relation to others. Ambient media: It is the name given to a new breed of out-of-home products and services determined by some as nontraditional or alternative media. Ambient media advertising can be used in conjunction with mainstream traditional media, or used equally effectively as a stand-alone activity. Art Director: The term art director is a blanket title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. Asymmetrical Balance: In asymmetrical, or informal balance instead of mirror images on each side of the picture area, the subjectelementsarenotablydifferentinsize,shape,weight,tone, and placement. Asymmetrical balance is introduced when the presumed weight of two or more lighter objects is equalised by a single heavier object placed on the other side of the imaginary pivot point. Bauhaus: Staatliches Bauhaus commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicised and taught. Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. Brand awareness: Brand awareness is a marketing concept that measures consumers’ knowledge of a brand’s existence. Brand Identity: The outward expression of a brand, including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance. Because the identity is assembled by the brand owner, it reflects how the owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand -and by extension the branded company, organisation, product or service. Brand image: Brand image is a customer’s mental picture of a brand. The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between the brand image and the brand identity. Brand: A brand is the identity of a specific product, service, or business. A brand can take many forms, including a name, sign, symbol, colour combination or slogan. The word brand began simply as a way to tell one person’s cattle from another by means of a hot iron stamp. A legally protected brand name is called a trademark. The word brand has continued to evolve to encompass identity -it affects the personality of a product, company or service. Branding: Entire process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product (good or service) in the consumers’ mind, through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. Branding aims to establish a significant and differentiated presenceinthemarketthatattractsandretainsloyalcustomers. Buying motives: A motive can be defined as a drive or an urge for which an individual seeks satisfaction. It becomes a buying motive when the individual seeks satisfaction through the purchase of something. Buying pattern: Typicalmannerinwhichconsumerspurchase goods or services in terms of amount, frequency, timing, etc. Calligraphy: Decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering. The creation and practice of pen scripts to adorn and decorate books, documents and letters. Column Centimetre(CC): Unitofmeasureinwhichadvertising space is sold in most of the world. Each unit is one column wide and one centimetre high. Width of the column, which may vary from one publication to another, remains unchanged within a publication. Colour Intensity: It is the brightness or freshness of colour hue. Colour psychology: Colour psychology is the study of colour as a factor in human behaviour. Colour saturation: Saturation is the movement of colour from absolute pure to grey. Colour Value: It is the relative darkness or lightness of a colour hue in relation to a grey scale. Consumer Durable: Consumer durables involve any type of products purchased by consumers that are manufactured for long-term use. As opposed to many goods that are intended for consumption in the short term. Consumer Profile: Outline of significant demographic and psychographic details about the user of a particular product. The data include the user’s age category, marital status, income level, education, occupation, sex, area of residence, and purchase behavior patterns. Knowledge of the consumer profile is very important in the determination of a creative advertising campaign. The advertising must appeal to both the user and the potential user of the product. Copyright: Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted by the law of a jurisdiction to the author or creator of an original work, including the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. Copywriting: Copywriting is the use of words to promote a person, business, opinion or idea. It can appear in direct mail pieces, taglines, jingle lyrics, web page content, online ads, catalogs, billboards, brochures, etc. Demographics: Demographics or demographic data are the characteristics of a human population. Commonly used demographics include gender, race, age, income, disabilities, mobilityeducationalattainment,homeownership,employment status, and even location. Desk Top Publishing: The term “desktop publishing” (also known as DTP) is commonly used to describe page layout skills. However, the skills and software are not limited to paper and book publishing. The same skills and software are often used to create graphics for point of sale displays, promotional items, trade show exhibits, retail package designs and outdoor signs. Digital printing: The main difference between digital printing and traditional methods such as lithography, flexography, gravure, or letterpress is that no printing plates are used, resulting in a quicker and less expensive turn around time. The most popular methods include inkjet or laser printers that deposit pigment or toner onto a wide variety of substrates including paper, photo paper, canvas, glass, metal, marble and others. Flex: Flex is a sheet of polythene widely used to deliver high quality digital print for outdoor hoardings and banners mainly printed by large colour plotters in CMYK mode. This print is used instead of hand-written banner for its low cost, strength and durability. Foreshortened: The size of an object’s dimensions along the line of sight is relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight. Full Bleed: Full bleed is printing from one edge of the paper to the other without the standard borders by which most personal printers are limited. This is useful for printing brochures, posters, and other marketing materials. Often the paper is trimmed after printing to ensure the ink runs fully to the edge and does not stop short of it. Game design: Game design, a subset of game development, is the process of designing the content and rules of a game in the pre-production stage and design of game play, environment, and storyline during production stage. GoldenMean: ‘GoldenMean’or ‘GoldenRatio’(goldenproportion) is based on Fibonacci series. If two sides of a rectangle follow the ratio of 1: 1618 then that rectangle is called a golden rectangle. Graphic User Interface: A graphical user interface (GUI), often pronounced gooey, is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with programs in more ways than typing such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players or gaming devices; household appliances and office equipment with images rather than text commands. A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. The actions are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Grid: A grid is a set of guidelines, able to be seen in the design process and invisible to the end-user or audience, for aligning and repeating elements on a page. Gutters: Gutter in typography, the blank space between facing pages. The space between columns of printed text, known as the alley, is sometimes also referred to as the gutter Hand held device: A mobile device (also known as a handheld device, handheld computer or simply handheld) is a pocket-sized computing device, typically having a display screen with touch input or a miniature keyboard. Header: The header is the top rectangular shaped area that runs across the top of the web-page design on your screen. The primary purpose of your header is to promote your company’s brand and make it instantly recognisable to your audience. Hyperlink: A hyperlink is a word, phrase, or image that you can click on to jump to a new document or a new section within the current document. Hyperlinks are found in nearly all web-pages, allowing users to click their way from page to page. Text hyperlinks are often blue and underlined, but don’t have to be. When you move the cursor over a hyperlink, whether it is text or an image, the arrow should change to a small hand pointing at the link. When you click it, a new page or place in the current page will open. Informal : Informal balance is achieved when the elements of composition are not arranged along with or across the visual axis.Thisbalanceisachievedintermsofvisualweightofallbasic elements spread over the entire composition. To achieve this one needs to imagine or assume a visual axis of the composition and then arrange basic elements one by one in such a way that they should not appear like a mirror of each other. Informal Balance: In Asymmetrical, or informal balance instead of mirror images on each side of the picture area, the subject elements are notably different in size, shape, weight, tone, and placement. Asymmetrical balance is introduced when the presumed weight of two or more lighter objects is equalised by a single heavier object placed on the other side of the imaginary pivot point. Information Architecture: Information architecture is the categorisation of information into a coherent structure, preferably one that most people can understand quickly, if not inherently. Installations: Three-dimensional works designed to transform a viewer’s perception of a space. Institutional advertising: Promotional message aimed at creating an image, enhancing reputation, building goodwill, or advocating an idea or the philosophy of an organisation, instead of sales promotion. Interactive storytelling: Interactive storytelling is a form of computer entertainment in which players take on the role of a protagonist in a dramatic storyline. Kiosk: Kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Letter Forms: A letter form is letter’s shape a term used especially in typography, palaeography, calligraphy and epigraphy. Logotype: In typography, a typeface is a set of one or more fonts, in one or more sizes, designed with stylistic unity. Luminosity: Luminosity is the brightness or freshness of a colour hue. When a colour hue is pure, it is the brightest. When the colour hue is mixed with other colour hue or black or white, it looses its purity and brightness. Marketingstrategy:Itisaplanthatintegratestheorganisation’s major goals, policies, and action sequences in a cohesive whole to achieve customer success. Marketing strategies are generally concerned with four Ps -product strategies, pricing strategies, promotional strategies, and placement strategies. Monochromatic colour scheme: The monochromatic colour scheme uses variations in lightness and saturation of a single colour. This scheme looks clean and elegant. Monochromatic colours go well together, producing a soothing effect. The monochromatic scheme is very easy on the eyes, especially with blue or green hues. Multimedia: The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way. Navigation: Navigation is a term used in the context of web design to suggest the path that user takes while browsing a website. Niche Audience: Niche is a fraction of a total market or an audience. A segment of the market or the audience with highly specific needs which cannot generally be satisfied by many service providers or marketers. Offset Printing: ‘Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or “offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (pantographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film (called “fountain solution”), keeping the non-printing areas ink-free. Organic Unity: Organic unity is the most important principle of composition. It is the quality of a composition that makes it visually complete. In such a composition neither you can add an extra element nor can you remove any. It is the state of achieving visual perfection in a composition. Orthographic projection: Orthographic projection is a means of representing a three-dimensional object in two dimensions. Paper Prototype: Paper prototyping is a variation of usability testing where representative users perform realistic tasks by interacting with a paper version of the interface. It is a method of testing early design ideas at an extremely low cost. Doing so, helps fix usability problems before one wastes money in implementing something that doesn’t work. It involves creating rough, even hand-sketched, drawings of an interface to use as prototypes, or models, of a design. Perspective consumer: Someone who has been identified as a potential customer. Placards: A placard is a notice installed in a public place, like a small card, sign, or plaque. It can be attached to or hung from a vehicle or building to indicate information about the vehicle operator or contents of a vehicle or building. Proofreading: Proofreading (also proof-reading) is the reading of a proof or computer monitor to detect and correct production-errors of text or art. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication. Prototype: A replica of a product as it will be manufactured, which may include such details as colour, graphics, packaging, instructions etc. Readability: Readability is primarily the concern of the typographer or information designer. It is the intended result of the complete process of presentation of textual material in order to communicate meaning as unambiguously as possible. Readability can be achieved should be by optimal inter-letter, inter-word and particularly inter-line spacing, coupled with appropriate line length and position on the page. Rule of thirds: The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of thumb in visual arts such as painting, photography and design. The rule states that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elementsshouldbeplacedalongtheselinesortheirintersections. Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would. Skywriting: Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns to create writing readable by someone on the ground. Streamers: A point of purchase display material that acts as a reminder to buy the product where the actual buying takes place. Stroke width: Stroke width is the thickness of the stroke of a letter. It is usually expressed in its relation to character height; the smaller the stroke width-to-height ratio, the skinnier letters appear. Symmetricalbalance: Symmetricalbalanceisthemostcommon balance. Designers achieve this by placing graphic elements in one part of the composition and then mirror it in the remaining part of the composition. Tag line: A tag line is a variant of a branding slogan typically used in marketing materials and advertising. The idea behind the concept is to create a memorable phrase that will sum-up the tone and premise of a brand or product. Target audience: In marketing and advertising, a target audience, is a specific group of people within the target market at which the marketing message is aimed at. Typeface: In the early days of hot metal technology an image of a letterform had to be transferred on to the top (face) of a rectangular metal piece called type. Hence the term know as typeface. URL (uniform resource locator): the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The best-known example of the use of URLs is for the addresses of web pages on the World Wide Web, such as . com/. Wire-frame: A website wire-frame is a basic visual guide used in interface design to suggest the structure of a website and relationships between its pages. A webpage wire-frame is a similar illustration of the layout of fundamental elements in the interface. Typically, wire-frames are completed before any artwork is developed. Note 161 162 Note

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