Traditionally media meant print, radio, television, cinema and outdoor advertising. But over a period of time it has changed very much. Today almost anything that can reach and influence prospective consumers or public at large is defined as media. These days advertisers depend a lot more on digital media. The word media is the plural form of medium, ideally meaning a substance for transmitting an effect or any intervening agent like water in water colour and oil in oil paint: whereas, in this context it means “channel for communication of information.” Earlier newspaper was the only media for communicating news and current affairs. Then radio and television became popular and there were designated time slots for news at prime time. Now news is received in different forms, on digital platforms, mobile phones and outdoor sites. Audiences can be reached anywhere and any time. The development and growth of digital technology has influenced the advertising industry and its working style. Now-a-days traditional media is supported by digital media in all strategic communication plans. However, it is felt that due to its viability and economic positioning it has far reaching results and in the coming times it is poised to take over the conventional media. The advertising strategy as a whole requires a balance between creative thinking and business acumen. It is imperative that a person with an indepth knowledge of other areas of advertising like media, planning, costing, marketing etc. will definitely score a commanding edge. What Is MedIa PlannIng The selection of media is a specialised task considering the suitability for a diverse mass consumer market like India. It is the job of the media planner to decide the media or media mix for communicating the message. The most important are: Press: Print Television Outdoor Advertising Radio Cinema Advertising Internet Although we get some data on readership of newspapers and magazines, it is difficult to find which media is more effective compared to another. For outdoor advertising one can try to ascertain the number of people passing a given hoarding or kiosk site, but cannot measure with accuracy to what degree the message penetrates. Similarly, it is difficult to ascertain the number of radio listeners, leave alone knowing the popularity, thus, the best one can get by way of statistics is a measure of the number of “opportunities to see.” Print Media It is the largest single organised advertising medium in India. Readers of newspapers and magazines are in a mood to assimilate news and information. Advertisements are, Towards a New Age Graphic Design The sketch below is the earliest printing machine which was hand-fed. The earliest newspapers were printed on these machines. Cover page of a 1928 magazine designed by Herbert Bayer in Germany therefore, an integral part of these publications. In other media they are to a greater or lesser extent an intrusion. Newspaper A newspaper is described as ‘printed periodical’ containing news published daily. Advantages of a newspaper • Themarketcanbebroadlyselected,cateringtodifferenttypes. • The medium permits flexibility of length and size. • Advertisements can be enhanced by the use of colour. • Advertising can be inserted at a fairly short notice. • Advertising can be restricted to a region, if required. Disadvantages • Dailies have a short life, so reading time is very limited. • Reproduction of most vernacular papers is not of high standard, and so advertisements also suffer if they fail to attract attention. Elements that contribute to the production of magazines vary widely. There are different kinds of magazines, made for different segments of readers, called niche audiences. Some magazines focus primarily on current events and are published weekly or fortnightly, while others may be published less frequently. Advantages of a Magazine • People can read at leisure, or when they are in a mood. • The market can be selected and isolated with the selection of the magazine, catering to different segments or interests. • The medium permits flexibility of length and size and has a reasonable shelf life till the next issue is out. • Usually sophisticated printing enhances advertisements. Disadvantages • Advertisements cannot be inserted at short notice. • Reproduction requires high standards, hence, high cost of advertising. Posters A poster is a piece of printed paper designed in any size, to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically, posters include both textual and graphic elements, although posters may be either wholly graphical or wholly textual. Posters are frequently used by advertisers for events, by political parties, protestors and others trying to communicate a message to a large audience. The modern poster dates back to the introduction of lithography printing which made mass production possible and the medium got recognised as a vital art form, attracting artists and commercial designers. Advantages of a poster • Size and colour have no limitation. It can be lit up if needed. • The area can be selected as required. • Usually have good print quality, on paper as well as flex. Disadvantages • Permission is needed to put posters in public places. • Get overlooked unless very attractive and put at strategically prominent places. • Competitors’ posters could be in close proximity or could even overlap each other. Advertising Design This is the cover page of 1932 fortune magazine. One can see the impact of the war. A Dutch poster made Thereafter posters continued to be used for advertising for salad oil in 1894. products, services and events. The film industry also Notice the artistically discovered the medium and today we see many attractive flowing lines and the Books, Brochures and Journals Thesealsocomeunderprintmediabutarereallynotcommercial in nature. Books are useful data storage medium and mostly A Poster of World War II Brochures come in a variety of sizes and formats. These are used for marketing of services and products. With product range, details and price listings and usually carry photographs. Journals are like magazines, but not of commercial nature. They are common with most business houses, and are released at appropriate and regular intervals. This medium is used in big industries for in-house circulation. Point of Purchase As the name suggests, this medium of advertising is in view near the point of sale and that gives the advertiser a great opportunity at the moment and at the right time to convert the message to a positive purchase. It is a continuous medium in the form of posters, kiosks, show-cards, display stands, dispensers, ambient and can be any size. Here as part of print media most pertinent are streamers and danglers or mobiles. Direct Mail Mailings are effective when the item involved is of high unit value. It is an expensive medium for mass purchase products. It goes along with door-to-door marketing and distribution, ensuring that every household in a selected area is covered. It has a great advantage as it is directed to specific individuals, giving a personal touch. There is no limitation of space and style, and can be read by the receiver when he is in the correct state of mind. There is no competitor on the same surface, thus ensures concentration. A mailing list of potential customers is needed. The advantages can easily be weighed against advertising in the press by the response. One mailing shot is comparatively useless – so a proper campaign must be prepared with the same care as for any other media. Electronic Media Radio Originally, radio or radiotelegraphy was called “wireless telegraphy”. In 1906 First Radio Tube was invented. The term “Radio” is said to have been coined by the advertising expert Waldo Warren and became common by the time of the first commercial broadcasts in the United States. It was then adopted by others, however some countries continued to use the term “wireless”. Development from a laboratory demonstration to a commercial entity spanned several decades and sustained efforts. In 1928 first commercials started on Radio in the West, while in India, Radio Broadcasting started in 1927 with two privately owned transmitters. Soon the Government took over the broadcasting and named it the Indian Broadcasting Service. Later it was re-named All India Radio (AIR). In the next two decades ‘Vividh Bharati’ an entertainment channel A dangler for an OTC health product. These are usually hung in shops and that is why they are called “point of purchase” advertising media An artist’s impression of what early electronic device may have looked like. Towards a New Age Graphic Design An early immobile flatbed “bellows” camera used for exposing film plates much like the working of an x-ray machine used these days was introduced. After that in quick succession the ‘Vividh Bharati Vigyapan Sewa’ was started and commercials were aired on Indian Radio services in the late sixties. In another decade Frequency Modulation Transmission System (FM) was commissioned. Currently, all AIR and other FM Stations provide enough scope and variety for programmes covering national and regional markets. Advantages of Radio • Wide coverage and costs are not too high. • Can reach people on various occasions in diverse locations. • Attracts attention using the persuasiveness of the human voice along with capturing music, it can sound “urgent” and compelling. • Can be properly timed, to reach the target audiences. • Target market can be reached in its own language. Disadvantages • By and large, radio cannot be a primary medium. • It can only be used as a reminder or support medium. • Has creative limitations. • Audience profile and numbers cannot be known accurately. Film and Cinema The audio-visual medium has great impact since it is lifelike. Truth created by trick photography and computer graphics is shown to an audience that is in a mood to receive the message being delivered. Visuals can be captured from different angles adding to dramatic effects and appeal. Advertising during a film seems like an intrusion though it still has a advantage compared to the other Media. To ensure success, the advertiser designs the film to secure maximum impact. Cinema provides good local and national coverage penetration. Costs remain high and this medium can be used only for high end products with big budgets and large sales volumes. Documentary Films are a very powerful medium of communications. They can be made with a view of showing it to pre-selected audience or even for general release. These daysthevariousmediahavebeenmergedandwehave what is called ‘Multimedia’. It has visuals, moving or animated images, etc. We also have something called ‘interactive’ media— where there can actually be an interface between advertiser and buyers. These actually work on our computer through satellite communication internet. Advertising Design Television A Hungarian scientist developed television between1923-1929 and soon commercially produced T.V. sets hit the market. In 1949 network television started in America and within a span of ten years full colour transmission began. By this time millions of homes in the western world were equipped to receive television programmes on various channels. In India experimental telecast started from a makeshift studio in Akashwani Bhawan in New Delhi in 1959. It took some years before regular daily transmission started on Doordarshan. In 1982 India hosted AsianGames at New Delhi, simultaneously there was massive growth and expansion in telecasting networks and colour television was introduced. Before the turn of the century, foreign channels launched their service network in our country. Now we have many 24 hour news and current affairs channel among others which reach almost 30 million Indian households. Advantages of Television • Wide coverage deep creative impact. • High prestige, favourable flexibility. Disadvantages • Rather high initial cost, limited viewer attention. • Fleeting message requires frequent repetitions. Online Newspaper With the introduction of the Internet, web-based “newspapers” started to be produced as online only publications. They may not be connected to hard copy formats. To be classed as an Online Only Newspaper, the papers have to be updated at a requisite time and keep to a fixed news format. They are published only by professional media companies regulated under press rules. Towards a New Age Graphic Design Outdoor Media or Out of Home (OoH) One of the oldest methods of communication—it is actually a pre-print media. In its modern form, there are posters, hoardings, kiosks, banners, neon signs, and skywriting. Outdoor advertising is designed to catch the eye and not to be read in detail. Repetition and reminders are its tremendous forces. OoH is a highly important contribution to many advertising campaigns. Hoardings are a popular outdoor media especially at traffic circles across all cities of our country. A common site at many places Hoardings In most outdoor media, especially hoardings, colour can be exploited to the fullest. It is cost effective and allows use of larger-than-life images. Campaigns are planned to fit any geographical location. It claims high coverage and repetition. Disadvantages • Length of message is restricted as the audience is on the move, and will not deliberately stop to see the advertisement. • Competitive products are often found in close proximity. • Not possible to pre-select a limited group of the public. Vehicle Graphics Also called Transport Advertising it goes piggy back on public transportation. Using outsides of buses, trains and other vehicles, it offers moving poster sites and is visible to people Advertising Design Tent like structure mounted on camel carts, bullock carts or bicycles is a common site in smaller towns. These days, the message is printed on flex, this media is often used during election campaigns or when a circus comes to town where these travel. It also includes placards and metal signs inside buses and trains, at railway and bus terminal poster, and kiosk sites. Private vehicles rely on this method to project their corporate signatures. Bus Bays Bus stops or places were buses stop to pick up passengers. Passengers normally reach a stop sometime before the arrival of their bus, getting time to look around and take note of things around them: thus is a popular site for advertisements. Towards a New Age Graphic Design Example of an ‘ambient’. Actually a popcorn stall in a park, designed like a serving of the snack, it looks so inviting that passers-by would be motivated to buy the product Neon Signs These bright fluorescent lights glow atop of buildings with a logo or flashing a message can be seen in all big cities. They facilitate advertising during nights. These moulded tube lights have limitations as regards to detail of form, colours and lettering. Balloons A relatively new medium, most often employed to advertise an event. It is a large size gas balloon with a printed or painted message on it and flies high, indicating the location. These are attractive and by virtue of height and sway prove attractive and draw curious attention. Installations and Ambient Media In the pre-print days, when a shoe maker or cobbler hung a big size shoe outside his shop to let travellers know that “this service is available here”, it was an early version of installation. These days also the intention is to attract the passers by. Instead of a loud sales message, it carries a logo for ownership identification. This, often wordless medium is largely used for corporate advertising usually in 3D installed outside the company office, at a traffic island or at a trade fair: featuring a large replica of their product along with the logo. This medium is exploited to the fullest in its attention seeking placement and imposing size. It can also be used commercially in shopping malls. Road Shows Road shows are a common feature when something is being launched. It was a traditional method to let people know about happenings in their town, like the arrival of a circus. It was like a mini parade-cum-publicity for the circus, when performers marched through the streets with fanfare. Participants carry banners and placards announcing the time and venue. The purpose even today remains the same but the “product” has changed, and the band has been replaced by a highly sophisticated music system and catchy electronic images. Events All corporate functions like Foundation Days, Annual General Meetings, Installation Ceremonies, Product Launches and Festivals are opportunity to project a positive image of any organisation. It’s not hardcore selling, but it still gets the message across to a captive audience. Exhibitions and Expositions These keep happening at regular intervals around the world. For instance an auto exposition takes place in India every two years at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. In fact Pragati Maidan was designed and developed by the Trade Fair Authority of India for such exhibitions. And many such centers are being made in Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Chennai. These provide an excellent chance to the manufactures and traders to display and interact, and facilitate prosperous business. (for details refer Chapter on Integrated Methods of Advertising) Advertising Design Support the marketing strategy should be integrally related to each woven into a theme

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