The common and IUPAC names of some aldehydes and ketones are given in Table 12.1. Table 12.1: Common and IUPAC Names of Some Aldehydes and Ketones Chemistry the nucleophilic attack of ethylene glycol. Acetals and ketals are hydrolysed with aqueous mineral acids to yield corresponding aldehydes and ketones respectively. (e) Addition of ammonia and its derivatives: Nucleophiles, such as ammonia and its derivatives H N-Z add to the carbonyl2group of aldehydes and ketones. The reaction is reversible and catalysed by acid. The equilibrium favours the product formation due to rapid dehydration of the intermediate to form >C=N-Z. Z = Alkyl, aryl, OH, NH2, C6H5NH, NHCONH2, etc. Table 12.2: Some N-Substituted Derivatives of Aldehydes and Ketones (>C=N-Z) * 2,4-DNP-derivatives are yellow, orange or red solids, useful for characterisation of aldehydes and ketones. 2. Reduction (i) Reduction to alcohols: Aldehydes and ketones are reduced to primary and secondary alcohols respectively by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) or lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) as well as by catalytic hydrogenation (Unit 11, Class XII). (ii) Reduction to hydrocarbons: The carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is reduced to CH2 group on treatment with zinc-amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid [Clemmensen Chemistry

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