UNIT 1 1.11 106.57 u 1.13 143.1 pm 1.15 8.97 g cm–3 1.16 Ni2+ = 96% and Ni3+ = 4% 1.24 (i) 354 pm (ii) 2.26×1022 unit cells 1.25 6.02 × 1018 cation vacancies mol–1 UNIT 2 2.4 16.23 M 2.5 0.617 m, 0.01 and 0.99, 0.67 2.6 157.8 mL 2.7 33.5% 2.8 17.95 m and 9.10 M 2.9 1.5×10–3 %, 1.25×10-4 m 2.15 40.907 g mol-1 2.16 73.58 kPa 2.17 12.08 kPa 2.18 10 g 2.19 23 g mol-1, 3.53 kPa 2.20 269.07 K 2.21 A = 25.58 u and B = 42.64 u 2.22 0.061 M 2.24 KCl, CH3OH, CH3CN, Cyclohexane 2.25 Toluene, chloroform; Phenol, Pentanol; Formic acid, ethylelne glycol 2.26 4 m 2.27 2.45x10-8 M 2.28 1.424% 2.29 3.2 g of water 2.30 4.575 g 2.32 0.650 2.33 i = 1.0753, Ka = 3.07×10-3 2.34 17.44 mm Hg 2.35 178×10-5 2.36 280.7 torr, 32 torr 2.38 0.6 and 0.4 2.39 x (O2) 4.6x10-5, x (N2) 9.22×10-5 2.40 0.03 mol of CaCl2 2.41 5.27x10-3 atm. UNIT 3 3.4 (i) E = 0.34V, Δ r G = – 196.86 kJ mol–1, K = 3.124 × 1034 (ii) E = 0.03V, Δ r G = – 2.895 kJ mol–1, K = 3.2 3.5 (i) 2.68 V, (ii) 0.53 V, (iii) 0.08 V, (iv) –1.298 V 3.6 1.56 V 3.8 124.0 S cm2 mol–1 3.9 0.219 cm–1 3.11 1.85 × 10–5 3.12 3F, 2F, 5F 3.13 1F, 4.44F 3.14 2F, 1F 3.15 1.8258g 3.16 14.40 min, Copper 0.427g, Zinc 0.437 g Chemistry UNIT 4 4.2 (i) 8.0 × 10–9 mol L-1 s–1; 3.89 × 10–9 mol L-1 s–1 bar–1/2–14.4 s 4.6 (i) 4 times (ii) ¼ times –1 –14.8 (i) 4.67 × 10–3 mol L–1s (ii) 1.98 × 10–2 s 4.9 (i) rate = k[A][B]2 (ii) 9 times 4.10 Orders with respect to A is 1.5 and order with respect to B is zero. 4.11 rate law = k[A][B]2; rate constant = 6.0 M–2min–1 4.13 (i) 3.47 x 10–3 seconds (ii) 0.35 minutes (iii) 0.173 years 4.14 1845 years 4.16 4.6 × 10–2 s 4.17 0.7814 μg and 0.227 μg. 4.19 77.7 minutes –1 –14.20 2.20 × 10–3 s 4.21 2.23 × 10–3 s–1, 7.8 ×10–4 atm s4.23 3.9 × 1012 s–1 4.24 0.135 M 4.25 0.158 M 4.26 232.79 kJ mol–1 4.27 239.339 kJ mol–1 4.28 24°C 4.29 Ea = 76.750 kJ mol–1, k = 0.9965 × 10–2 s–1 4.30 52.8 kJ mol–1 UNIT 6 6.1 Zinc is highly reactive metal, it may not be possible to replace it from a solution of ZnSO4 so easily. 6.2 It prevents one of the components from forming the froth by complexation. 6.3 The Gibbs energies of formation of most sulphides are greater than that for CS2. In fact, CS2 is an endothermic compound. Hence it is common practice to roast sulphide ores to corresponding oxides prior to reduction. 6.5 CO 6.6 Selenium, tellurium, silver, gold are the metals present in anode mud. This is because these are less reactive than copper. 6.9 Silica removes Fe2O3 remaining in the matte by forming silicate, FeSiO3. 6.15 Cast iron is made from pig iron by melting pig iron with scrap iron and coke. It has slightly lower carbon content (» 3%) than pig iron (» 4% C) 6.17 To remove basic impurities, like Fe2O3 6.18 To lower the melting point of the mixture. 6.20 The reduction may require very high temperature if CO is used as a reducing agent in this case. 3  12Al  O  Al O  G  827 kJ mol 2 6.21 Yes, 2 23r 3  12Cr  O  Cr O  G  540 kJ mol 2 23 r2 Hence Cr2O3 + 2Al → Al2O3 + 2Cr – 827 – (–540) = – 287 kJ mol–1 6.22 Carbon is better reducing agent. 6.25 Graphite rods act as anode and get burnt away as CO and CO2 during the process of electrolysis. 6.28 Above 1600K Al can reduce MgO. Answers...UNIT 7 7.10 Because of inability of nitrogen to expand its covalency beyond 4. 7.20 Freons 7.22 It dissolves in rain water and produces acid rain. 7.23 Due to strong tendency to accept electrons, halogens act as strong oxidising agent. 7.24 Due to high electronegativity and small size, it cannot act as central atom in higher oxoacids. 7.25 Nitrogen has smaller size than chlorine. Smaller size favours hydrogen bonding. 7.30 Synthesis of O2PtF6 inspired Bartlett to prepare XePtF6 as Xe and oxygen have nearly same ionisation enthalpies. 7.31 (i) +3 (ii) +3 (iii) -3 (iv) +5 (v) +5 7.34 ClF, Yes. 7.36 (i) I2 < F2 < Br2 < Cl2 (ii) HF < HCl < HBr < HI (iii) BiH3 < SbH3 < AsH3 < PH3 < NH3 7.37 (ii) NeF2 7.38 (i) XeF4 (ii) XeF2 (iii) XeO3 UNIT 8 8.2 It is because Mn2+ has 3d5 configuration which has extra stability. 8.5 Stable oxidation states. 3d3 (Vanadium): (+2), +3, +4, and +5 3d5 (Chromium): +3, +4, +6 3d5 (Manganese): +2, +4, +6, +7 3d8 (Cobalt): +2, +3 (in complexes) 3d4 There is no d4 configuration in the ground state. 28.6 Vanadate VO3, chromate CrO  ,permanganate MnO 4 4 8.10 +3 is the common oxidation state of the lanthanoids In addition to +3, oxidation states +2 and +4 are also exhibited by some of the lanthanoids. 8.13 In transition elements the oxidation states vary from +1 to any highest oxidation state by one For example, for manganese it may vary as +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7. In the nontransition elements the variation is selective, always differing by 2, e.g. +2, +4, or +3, +5 or +4, +6 etc. 8.18 Except Sc3+, all others will be coloured in aqueous solution because of incompletely filled 3d-orbitals, will give rise to d-d transitions. 8.21 (i) Cr2+ is reducing as it involves change from d4 to d3, the latter is more stable configuration ( 3 ) Mn(III) to Mn(II) is from 3d4 to 3d5 again 3d5 is an extra stable configuration.t2g(ii) Due to CFSE, which more than compensates the 3rd IE. (iii) The hydration or lattice energy more than compensates the ionisation enthalpy involved in removing electron from d1. 8.23 Copper, because with +1 oxidation state an extra stable configuration, 3d10 results. 8.24 Unpaired electrons Mn3+ = 4, Cr3+ = 3, V3+ = 2, Ti3+ = 1. Most stable Cr3+ 8.28 Second part 59, 95, 102. 8.30 Lawrencium, 103, +3 Chemistry 8.36 Ti2+ = 2, V2+ = 3, Cr3+ = 3, Mn2+ = 5, Fe2+ = 6, Fe3+ = 5, CO2+ = 7, Ni2+ = 8, Cu2+ = 9 8.38 M n(n 2) = 2.2, n ≈ 1, d2 sp3, CN– strong ligand = 5.3, n ≈ 4, sp3, d2, H2O weak ligand = 5.9, n ≈ 5, sp3, Cl– weak ligand. UNIT 9 9.5 (i) + 3 (ii) +3 (iii) +2 (iv) +3 (v) +3 ]29.6 (i) [Zn(OH)(ii) K[PdCl] (iii) [Pt(NH)Cl] (iv) K[Ni(CN)]42432224]4+(v) [Co(NH)(ONO)]2+ (vi) [Co(NH)](SO)(vii) K[Cr(CO)] (viii) [Pt(NH)3536243 324336]2–(ix) [CuBr4(x) [Co(NH3)5(NO2)]2+ 9.9 (i) [Cr(C2O4)3]3" ¯ Nil (ii) [Co(NH3)3Cl3] ¯ Two (fac- and mer-) 9.12 Three (two cis and one trans) 9.13 Aqueous CuSO solution exists as [Cu(HO)]SO which has blue colour due to [Cu(HO)]2+ ions.424424(i) When KF is added, the weak H2O ligands are replaced by F¯ ligands, forming [CuF4]2" ions which is a green precipitate. ]2+[Cu(H2O)4 + 4F– → [CuF4]2– + 4H2O (ii) When KCl is added, Cl¯ ligands replace the weak H2O ligands forming [CuCl4)2– ions which has bright green colour. [Cu(H2O)4]2+ + 4Cl– → [CuCl4]2– + 4H2O 9.14 [Cu(H2O)4]2+ + 4 CN– → [Cu(CN)4]2-+ 4H2O As CN¯ is a strong ligand, it forms a highly stable complex with Cu2+ ion. On passing H2S, free Cu2+ ions are not available to form the precipitate of CuS. 9.23 (i) OS = +3, CN = 6, d-orbital occupation is t2g6 eg0, (ii) OS = +3, CN = 6, d3 (t2g3), (iii) OS = +2, CN = 4, d7 ( t2g5 eg2), (iv) OS = +2, CN = 6, d5 (t2g3 eg2). 9.28 (iii) 9.29 (ii) 9.30 (iii) 9.31 (iii) 9.32 (i) The order of the ligand in the spectrochemical series : –H2O < NH3 < NO2 Hence the wavelength of the light observed will be in the order : ]2+]2+]4–[Ni(HO) < [Ni(NH) < [Ni(NO)263626Thus, wavelengths absorbed (E = hc/λ) will be in the opposite order. Answers...

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