You must have seen graphs, diagrams and maps showing different types of data. For example, the thematic maps shown in Chapter 1 of book for Class XI entitled Practical Work in Geography, Part-I (NCERT, 2006) depict relief and slope, climatic conditions, distribution of rocks and minerals, soils, population, industries, general land use and cropping pattern in the Nagpur district, Maharashtra. These maps have been drawn using large volume of related data collected, compiled and processed. Have you ever thought what would have happened if the same information would have been either in tabular form or in a descriptive transcript? Perhaps, it would not have been possible from such a medium of communication to draw visual impressions which we get through these maps. Besides, it would also have been a time consuming task to draw inferences about whatever is being presented in non–graphical form. Hence, the graphs, diagrams and maps enhance our capabilities to make meaningful comparisons between the phenomena represented, save our time and present a simplified view of the characteristics represented. In the present chapter, we will discuss methods of constructing different types of graphs, diagrams and maps. Representation of Data The data describe the properties of the phenomena they represent. They are collected from a variety of sources (Chapter 1). The geographers, economists, resource scientists and the decision makers use a lot of data these days. Besides the tabular form, the data may also be presented in some graphic or diagrammatic form. The transformation of data through visual methods like graphs, diagrams, maps and charts is called representation of data. Such a form of the presentation of data makes it easy to understand the patterns of population growth, distribution and the density, sex ratio, age–sex composition, occupational structure, etc. within a geographical territory. There is a Chinese proverb that ‘a picture is equivalent to thousands of words’. Hence, the graphic method of the representation of data enhances our understanding, and makes the comparisons easy. Besides, such methods create an imprint on mind for a longer time. General Rules for Drawing Graphs, Diagrams and Maps 1. Selection of a Suitable Method Data represent various themes such as temperature, rainfall, growth and distribution of the population, production, distribution and trade of different commodities, etc. These characteristics of the data need to be suitably represented by an appropriate graphical method. For example, data related to the temperature or growth of population between different periods in time and for different countries/states may best be represented using line graphs. Similarly, bar diagrams are suited best for showing rainfall or the production of commodities. The population distribution, both human and livestock, or the distribution of the crop producing areas may suitably be represented on dot maps and the population density using choropleth maps. 2. Selection of Suitable Scale The scale is used as measure of the data for representation over diagrams and maps. Hence, the selection of suitable scale for the given data sets should be carefully made and must take into consideration entire data that is to be represented. The scale should neither be too large nor too small. 3. Design We know that the design is an important cartographic task (Refer ‘Essentials of Map Making’ as discussed in Chapter 1 of the Practical Work in Geography, Part-I (NCERT, 2006), a textbook of Class XI). The following components of the cartographic designs are important. Hence, these should be carefully shown on the final diagram/map. Title The title of the diagram/map indicates the name of the area, reference year of the data used and the caption of the diagram. These components are represented using letters and numbers of different font sizes and thickness. Besides, their placing also matters. Normally, title, subtitle and the corresponding year are shown in the centre at the top of the map/diagram. Legend A legend or index is an important component of any diagram/map. It explains the colours, shades, symbols and signs used in the map and diagram. It should also be carefully drawn and must correspond to the contents of the map/diagram. Besides, it also needs to be properly positioned. Normally, a legend is shown either at the lower left or lower right side of the map sheet. Direction The maps, being a representation of the part of the earth’s surface, need be oriented to the directions. Hence, the direction symbol, i. e. North, should also be drawn and properly placed on the final map. Construction of Diagrams The data possess measurable characteristics such as length, width and volume. The diagrams and the maps that are drawn to represent these data related characteristics may be grouped into the following types: (i) One-dimensional diagrams such as line graph, poly graph, bar diagram, histogram, age, sex, pyramid, etc.; (ii) Two-dimensional diagram such as pie diagram and rectangular diagram; (iii) Three-dimensional diagrams such as cube and spherical diagrams. It would not be possible to discuss the methods of construction of these many types of diagrams and maps primarily due to the time constraint. We will, therefore, describe the most commonly drawn diagrams and maps and the way they are constructed. These are : • Line graphs • Bar diagrams • Pie diagram • Wind rose and star diagram • Flow Charts Line Graph The line graphs are usually drawn to represent the time series data related to the temperature, rainfall, population growth, birth rates and the death rates. Table 3.1 provides the data used for the construction of Fig 3.2. Construction of a Line Graph (a) Simplify the data by converting it into round numbers such as the growth rate of population as shown in Table 3.1 for the years 1961 and 1981 may be rounded to 2.0 and 2.2 respectively. (b) Draw X and Y-axis. Mark the time series variables (years/months) on the X axis and the data quantity/value to be plotted (growth of population in per cent or the temperature in 0C) on Y axis. (c) Choose an appropriate scale and label it on Y-axis. If the data involves a negative figure then the selected scale should also show it as shown in Fig. 3.1. Practical Work in Geography, Part-II (d) Plot the data to depict year/month-wise values according to the selected scale on Y-axis, mark the location of the plotted values by a dot and join these dots by a free hand drawn line. Year Growth rate in percentage 1901 - 1911 0.56 1921 -0.30 1931 1.04 1941 1.33 1951 1.25 1961 1.96 1971 2.20 1981 2.22 1991 2.14 2001 1.93 Example 3.2 : Construct a polygraph to compare the growth of sex-ratio in different states as given in the Table 3.2 : Table 3.2 : Sex-Ratio (Female per 1000 male) of Selected Sates – 1961-2001* States/UT 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Delhi Haryana Uttar Pradesh 785 868 907 801 867 876 808 870 882 827 86 876 821 846 898 Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Fig. 3.3 : Sex-Ratio of Selected States 1961-2001 Bar Diagram The bar diagrams are drawn through columns of equal width. It is also called a columnar diagram. Following rules should be observed while constructing a bar diagram: (a) The width of all the bars or columns should be similar. (b) All the bars should be placed on equal intervals/distance. (c) Bars may be shaded with colours or patterns to make them distinct and attractive. The simple, compound or polybar diagram may be constructed to suit the data characteristics. Simple Bar Diagram A simple bar diagram is constructed for an immediate comparison. It is advisable to arrange the given data set in an ascending or descending order and plot the data variables accordingly. However, time series data are represented according to the sequencing of the time period. Example 3.3 : Construct a simple bar diagram to represent the rainfall data of Thiruvananthapuram as given in Table 3.3 : Table 3.3 : Average Monthly Rainfall of Thiruvananthapuram Construction (a) Draw X and Y-axes of a suitable length and divide X-axis into 12 parts to show months in a year. (b) Select a suitable scale with equal intervals of 5° C or 10° C for temperature data on the Y-axis and label it at its right side. (c) Similarly, select a suitable scale with equal intervals of 5 cm or 10 cm for rainfall data on the Y-axis and label at its left side. (d) Plot temperature data using line graph and the rainfall by bar diagram as shown in Fig. 3.5. Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Multiple Bar Diagram Multiple bar diagrams are constructed to represent two or more than two variables for the purpose of comparison. For example, a multiple bar diagram may be constructed to show proportion of males and females in the total, rural and urban population or the share of canal, tube well and well irrigation in the total irrigated area in different states. Example 3.5 : Construct a suitable bar diagram to show decadal literacy rate in India during 1951 – 2001 as given in Table 3.5 : Table 3.5 : Literacy Rate in India, 1951-2001 (in %)* Construction (a) Multiple bar diagram may be chosen to represent the above data. (b) Mark time series data on X-axis and literacy rates on Y-axis as per the selected scale. Year Literacy Rate Total population Male Female 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 18.33 28.3 34.45 43.57 52.21 64.84 27.16 40.4 45.96 56.38 64.13 75.85 8.86 15.35 21.97 29.76 39.29 54.16 *Refer to appendix for 2011 data (c) Plot the per cent of total population, male and female in closed columns (Fig 3.6)*. * Refer to appendix for 2011 data Fig. 3.6 : Literacy Rate, 1951-2001 Compound Bar Diagram When different components are grouped in one set of variable or different variables of one component are put together, their representation is made by a compound bar diagram. In this method, different variables are shown in a single bar with different rectangles. Example 3.6 :Construct a compound bar diagram to depict the data as shown in Table 3.6 : Table 3.6 : Gross Generation of Electricity in India (in Billion KWh) Year Thermal Hydro Nuclear Total 2008-09 616.2 110.1 14.9 741.2 2009-10 677.1 104.1 18.6 799.8 2010-11 704.3 114.2 26.3 844.8 Source: Economic Survey, 2011-12 Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. (b) A single bar will depict the gross electricity generation in the given year and the generation of thermal, hydro and nuclear electricity be shown by dividing the total length of the bar as shown in Fig 3.7. Pie Diagram Pie diagram is another graphical method of the representation of data. It is drawn to depict the total value of the given attribute using a circle. Dividing the circle into corresponding degrees of angle then represent the sub– sets of the data. Hence, it is also called as Divided Circle Diagram. The angle of each variable is calculated using the following formulae. Value of given State/Region X 360 Total Value of All States/Regions If data is given in percentage form, the angles are calculated using the given formulae. Percentage of x X 360 100 Practical Work in Geography, Part-II For example, a pie diagram may be drawn to show total population of India along with the proportion of the rural and urban population. In this case the circle of an appropriate radius is drawn to represent the total population and its sub-divisions into rural and urban population are shown by corresponding degrees of angle. Table 3.7 (a) : India’s Export to Major Example 3.7: Represent the data Regions of the World in 2010-11 as given in Table 3.7 (a) with a suitable diagram. Calculation of Angles (a) Arrange the data on percentages of Indian exports in an ascending order. (b) Calculate the degrees of angles for showing the Unit/Region % of Indian Export Europe 20.2 Africa 6.5 America 14.8 Asia and ASEAN 56.2 Others 2.3 Total 100 Source : Economic Survey 2011-12given values of India’s export to major regions/ countries of the world, Table 3.7 (b). It could be done by multiplying percentage with a constant of 3.6 as derived by dividing the total number of degrees in a circle by 100, i. e. 360/100. Countries % Calculation Degree Europe 20.2 20.2 × 3.6 = 72.72 73° Africa 6.5 6.5 × 3.6 = 23.4 23° America 14.8 14.8 × 3.6 = 53.28 53° Asia and ASEAN 56.2 56.2 × 3.6 = 202.32 203° Others 2.3 2.3 × 3.6 = 8.28 8° Total 100 360° Flow Maps/Chart Flow chart is a combination of graph and map. It is drawn to show the flow of commodities or people between the places of origin and destination. It is also called as Dynamic Map. Transport map, which shows number of passengers, vehicles, etc., is the best example of a flow chart. These charts are drawn using lines of proportional width. Many government agencies prepare flow maps to show density of the means of transportation on different routes. The flow maps/ charts are generally drawn to represent two the types of data as given below: 1. The number and frequency of the vehicles as per the direction of their movement 2. The number of the passengers and/or the quantity of goods transported. Requirements for the Preparation of a Flow Map (a) A route map depicting the desired transport routes along with the connecting stations. (b) The data pertaining Table 3.8 : No. of trains of selected routes ofto the flow of goods, Delhi and adjoining areasservices, number of Practical Work in Geography, Part-II vehicles, etc., along with the point of origin anddestination of the movements. (c) The selection of a scale through which the data related to the quantity of passengers and goods or the number of vehicles is to be represented. Example 3.10 : Construct a flow map to represent the number of trains running in Delhi and the adjoining areas as given in the Table 3.8. S. No. Railway Routes No. of Trains 1. Old Delhi – New Delhi 50 2. New Delhi-Nizamuddin 40 3. Nizamuddin-Badarpur 30 4. Nizamuddin-Sarojini Nagar 12 5. Sarojini Nagar – Pusa Road 8 6. Old Delhi – Sadar Bazar 32 7. Udyog Nagar-Tikri Kalan 6 8. Pusa Road – Pehladpur 15 9. Sahibabad-Mohan Nagar 18 10. Old Delhi – Silampur 33 11. Silampur – Nand Nagari 12 12. Silampur-Mohan Nagar 21 13. Old Delhi-Shalimar Bagh 16 14. Sadar Bazar-Udyog Nagar 18 15. Old Delhi – Pusa Road 22 16. Pehladpur – Palam Vihar 12 Construction (a) Take an outline map of Delhi and adjoining areas in which railway line and the nodal stations are depicted (Fig.3.9). (b) Select a scale to represent the number of trains. Here, the maximum number is 50 and the minimum is 6. If we select a scale of 1cm = 50 trains, the maximum and minimum numbers will be represented by a strip of 10 mm and 1.2 mm thick lines respectively on the map. (c) Plot the thickness of each strip of route between the given rail route (Fig. 3.10). Example 3.10 : Construct a water flow map of Ganga Basin as shown in Fig. 3.11. Construction (a) Take a scale as a strip of 1cm width = 50,000 cusecs of water. (b) Make the diagram as shown in Fig. 3.12. Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Thematic Maps Graphs and diagrams serve a useful purpose in providing a comparison between the internal variations within the data of different characteristics represented. However, the use of graphs and diagrams, at times, fails to produce a regional perspective. Hence, variety of maps may also be drawn to understand the patterns of the regional distributions or the characteristics of variations over space. These maps are also known as the distribution maps. Requirements for Making a Thematic Map (a) State/District level data about the selected theme. (b) Outline map of the study area alongwith administrative boundaries. (c) Physical map of the region. For example, physiographic map for population distribution and relief and drainage map for constructing transportation map. Rules for Making Thematic Maps (i) The drawing of the thematic maps must be carefully planned. The final map should properly reflect the following components: (ii) The selection of a suitable method to be used for thematic mapping. a. Name of the area b. Title of the subject-matter c. Source of the data and year d. Indication of symbols, signs, colours, shades, etc. e. Scale Classification of Thematic Maps based on Method of Construction The thematic maps are generally, classified into quantitative and non-quantitative maps. The quantitative maps are drawn to show the variations within the data. For example, maps depicting areas receiving more than 200 cm, 100 to 200 cm, 50 to 100 cm and less than 50 cm of rainfall are referred as quantitative maps. These maps are also called as statistical maps. The non-quantitative maps, on the other hand, depict the non–measurable characteristics in the distribution of given information such as a map showing high and low rainfall-receiving areas. These maps are also called as qualitative maps. It would not be possible to discuss drawing these different types of thematic maps under the constraint of time. We will, therefore, confine to discuss the methods of the construction of the following types of quantitative maps : (a) Dot maps (b) Choropleth maps (c) Isopleth maps Dot Maps The dot maps are drawn to show the distribution of phenomena such as population, cattle, types of crops, etc. The dots of same size as per the chosen scale are marked over the given administrative units to highlight the patterns of distributions. Requirement (a) An administrative map of the given area showing state/district/block boundaries. (b) Statistical data on selected theme for the chosen administrative units, i.e., total population, cattle etc. (c) Selection of a scale to determine the value of a dot. (d) Physiographic map of the region especially relief and drainage maps. Precaution (a) The lines demarcating the boundaries of various administrative units should not be very thick and bold. (b) All dots should be of same size. Example 3.12 : Construct a dot map to represent population data as given in Table 3.9. Table 3.9 : Population of India, 2001* Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Sl. No. States/Union Territories Total Population No. of dots 1. Jammu & Kashmir 10,069,917 100 2. Himachal Pradesh 6,077,248 60 3. Punjab 24,289,296 243 5. Uttarakhand 8,479,562 85 6. Haryana 21,082,989 211 7. Delhi 13,782,976 138 8. Rajasthan 56,473,122 565 9. Uttar Pradesh 166,052,859 1,660 10. Bihar 82,878,796 829 11. Sikkim 540,493 5 12. Arunachal Pradesh 1,091,117 11 13. Nagaland 1,988,636 20 14. Manipur 2,388,634 24 15. Mizoram 891,058 89 16. Tripura 3,191,168 32 17. Meghalaya 2,306,069 23 18. Assam 26,638,407 266 19. West Bengal 80,221,171 802 20. Jharkhand 26,909,428 269 21. Odisha 36,706,920 367 22. Chhattisgarh 20,795,956 208 23. Madhya Pradesh 60,385,118 604 24. Gujarat 50,596,992 506 25. Maharashtra 96,752,247 968 26. Andhra Pradesh 75,727,541 757 27. Karnataka 52,733,958 527 28. Goa 1,343,998 13 29. Kerala 31,838,619 318 30. Tamil Nadu 62,110,839 621 * Refer to appendix for 2011 data Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Construction (a) Select the size and value of a dot. (b) Determine the number of dots in each state using the given scale. For example, number of dots in Maharashtra will be 9,67,52,247/100,000 = 967.52. It may be rounded to 968, as the fraction is more than 0.5. (c) Place the dots in each state as per the determined number in all states. (d) Consult the physiographic/relief map of India to identify mountainous, desert, and/or snow covered areas and mark lesser number of dots in such areas. Choropleth Map The choropleth maps are also drawn to depict the data characteristics as they are related to the administrative units. These maps are used to represent the density of population, literacy/growth rates, sex-ratio, etc. Requirement for drawing Choropleth Map (a) A map of the area depicting different administrative units. (b) Appropriate statistical data according to administrative units. Steps to be followed (a) Arrange the data in ascending or descending order. (b) Group the data into 5 categories to represent very high, high, medium, low and very low concentrations. (c) The interval between the categories may be identified on the following formulae i.e. Range/5 and Range = maximum value – minimum value. (d) Patterns, shades or colour to be used to depict the chosen categories should be marked in an increasing or decreasing order. Example 3.13: Construct a Choropleth map to represent the literacy rates in India as given in Table 3.10. Construction (a) Arrange the data in ascending order as shown above. (b) Identify the range within the data. In the present case, the states recording the lowest and highest literacy rates are Bihar (47%) and the Kerala (90.9%) respectively. Hence, the range would be 91.0 – 47.0 = 44.0 (c) Divide the range by 5 to get categories from very low to very high. (44.0/ 5 = 8.80. We can convert this value to a round number, i. e., t 9.0 (d) Determine the number of the categories alongwith range of each category. Add 9.0 to the lowest value of 47.0 as so on. We will finally get following categories : 47 – 56 Very low (Bihar, Jharkhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir) 56 – 65 Low (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh) Table 3.10 : Literacy Rate in India, 2001* Original Data on Literacy in India S. No. States / Union Territories Literacy Rate 1. Jammu & Kashmir 55.5 2. Himachal Pradesh 76.5 3. Punjab 69.7 4. Chandigarh 81.9 5. Uttarakhand 71.6 6. Haryana 67.9 7. Delhi 81.7 8. Rajasthan 60.4 9. Uttar Pradesh 56.3 10. Bihar 47.0 11. Sikkim 68.8 12. Arunachal Pradesh 54.3 13. Nagaland 66.6 14. Manipur 70.5 15. Mizoram 88.8 16. Tripura 73.2 17. Meghalaya 62.6 18. Assam 63.3 19. West Bengal 68.6 20. Jharkhand 53.6 21. Odisha 63.1 22. Chhattisgarh 64.7 23. Madhya Pradesh 63.7 24. Gujarat 69.1 25. Daman & Diu 78.2 26. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 57.6 27. Maharashtra 76.9 28. Andhra Pradesh 60.5 29. Karnataka 66.6 30. Goa 82.0 31. Lakshadweep 86.7 32. Kerala 90.9 33. Tamil Nadu 73.5 34. Puducherry 81.2 35. Andaman & Nicobar Islands 81.3 Data on Literacy in India as arranged in Ascending order S. No. States / Union Territories Literacy Rate 10. Bihar 47.0 20. Jharkhand 53.6 12. Arunachal Pradesh 54.3 01. Jammu & Kashmir 55.5 9. Uttar Pradesh 56.3 26. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 57.6 08. Rajasthan 60.4 28. Andhra Pradesh 60.5 17. Meghalaya 62.6 21. Odisha 63.1 18. Assam 63.3 23. Madhya Pradesh 63.7 22. Chhattisgarh 64.7 13. Nagaland 66.6 29. Karnataka 66.6 06. Haryana 67.9 19. West Bengal 68.6 11. Sikkim 68.8 24. Gujarat 69.1 03. Punjab 69.7 14. Manipur 70.5 05. Uttarakhand 71.6 16. Tripura 73.2 33. Tamil Nadu 73.5 02. Himachal Pradesh 76.5 27. Maharashtra 76.9 25. Daman & Diu 78.2 34. Puducherry 81.2 35. Andaman & Nicobar Islands 81.3 07. Delhi 81.7 04. Chandigarh 81.9 30. Goa 82.0 31. Lakshadweep 86.7 15. Mizoram 88.8 32. Kerala 90.9 Practical Work in Geography, Part-II* Refer to appendix for 2011 data 65 – 74 Medium (Nagaland, Karnataka, Haryana, West Bengal, Sikkim, Gujarat, Punjab, Manipur, Uttaranchal, Tripura, Tamil Nadu) 74 – 83 High (Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Delhi, Goa) 83 – 92 Very High (Mizoram, Kerala) (e) Assign shades/pattern to each category ranging from lower to higher hues. (f) Prepare the map as shown in Fig. 3.14. (g) Complete the map with respect to the attributes of map design. Isopleth Map We have seen that the data related to the administrative units are represented using choropleth maps. However, the variations within the data, in many cases, may also be observed on the basis of natural boundaries. For example, variations in the degrees of slope, temperature, occurrence of rainfall, etc. possess characteristics of the continuity in the data. These geographical facts may be represented by drawing the lines of equal values on a map. All such maps are termed as Isopleth Map. The word Isopleth is derived from Iso meaning equal and pleth means lines. Thus, an imaginary line, which joins the places of equal values, is referred as Isopleth. The more frequently drawn isopleths include Isotherm (equal temperature), Isobar (equal pressure), Isohyets (equal rainfall), Isonephs (equal cloudiness), Isohels (equal sunshine), contours (equal heights), Isobaths (equal depths), Isohaline (equal salinity), etc. Requirement (a) Base line map depicting point location of different places. (b) Appropriate data of temperature, pressure, rainfall, etc. over a definite period of time. (c) Drawing instrument specially French Curve, etc. Rules to be observed (a) An equal interval of values be selected. (b) Interval of 5, 10, or 20 is supposed to be ideal. (c) The value of Isopleth should be written along the line on either side or in the middle by breaking the line. Interpolation Interpolation is used to insert the intermediate values between the observed values of at two stations/locations, such as temperature recorded at Chennai and Hyderabad or the spot heights of two points. Generally, drawing of isopleths joining the places of same value is also termed as interpolation. Method of Interpolation For interpolation, follow the following steps: (a) Firstly, determine the minimum and maximum values given on the map. (b) Calculate the range of value i.e. Range = maximum value – minimum value. (c) Based on range, determine the interval in a whole number like 5, 10, 15, etc. The exact point of drawing an Isopleth is determined by using the following formulae. Distance between two points in cmPoint of Isopleth =× Interval Difference between the two values of corresponding points The interval is the difference between the actual value on the map and interpolated value. For example, in an Isotherm map of two places show 28º C and 33º C and you want to draw 30º C isotherm, measure the distance between the two points. Suppose the distance is 1cm or 10 mm and the difference between 28 and 33 is 5, whereas 30 is 2 points away from 28 and 3 points behind 33, thus, exact point of 30 will be Thus, isotherm of 30ºC will be plotted 4mm away from 28ºC or 6mm ahead of 33ºC. (d) Draw the isopleths of minimum value first; other isopleths may be drawn accordingly. Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Excercises 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below: (i) Which one of the following map shows the Population distribution: (a) Choropleth maps (b) Isopleth maps (c) Dot maps (d) Square root map (ii) Which one of the following is best suited to represent the decadal growth of population? (a) Line graph (b) Bar diagram (c) Circle diagram (d) Flow diagram 1911 0.35 1921 8.27 1931 19.12 1941 31.97 1951 41.42 1961 26.41 1971 38.23 1981 46.14 1991 36.47 2001 31.13 3. Represent the following data with help of pie-diagram. India : Land use 1951-2001 1950-51 1998-2001 Net Sown Area Forest Not available for cultivation Fallow Land Pasture and Tree Cultruable Waste Land 42 14 17 10 9 8 46 22 14 8 5 5 4. Study the table given below and draw the given diagrams/maps. Area and Production of Rice in major States States Area in 000 ha % to total area Production 000 tones % to total production West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Punjab Tamil Nadu Bihar 5,435 5,839 4,028 2,611 2,113 3,671 12.3 13.2 9.1 5.9 4.8 8.3 12,428 11,540 12,428 9,154 7,218 5,417 14.6 13.6 13.5 10.8 8.5 6.4 (a) Construct a multiple bar diagram to show area under rice in each State. (b) Construct a pie-diagram to show the percentage of area under rice in each State. (c) Construct a dot map to show the production of rice in each State. (d) Construct a Choropleth map to show the percentage of production of rice in States. 5. Show the following data of temperature and rainfall of Kolkata with a suitable diagram. Practical Work in Geography, Part-II Months Temperature in º C Rainfall in cm Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. 19.6 22.0 27.1 30.1 30.4 29.9 28.9 28.7 28.9 27.6 23.4 19.7 1.2 2.8 3.4 5.1 13.4 29.0 33.1 33.4 25.3 12.7 2.7 0.4

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