leac105 5-Ch. (Dissolution of a Partner (Ver.-4).pmd Page 1 You have learnt about the reconstitution of a partnership firm which takes place on account of admission, retirement or death of a partner. In such a situation while the existing partnership is dissolved, the firm may continue under the same name if the partners so decide. In other words, it results in the dissolution of a partnership but not that of the firm. According to Section 39 of the partnership Act 1932, the dissolution of partnership between all the partners of a firm is called the dissolution of the firm. That means the Act recognises the difference in the breaking of relationship between all the partners of a firm and between some of the partners; and it is the breaking or discontinuance of relationship between all the partners which is termed as the dissolution of partnership firm. This brings an end to the existence of firm, and no business is transacted after dissolution except the activities related to closing of the firm as the affairs of the firm are to be wound up by selling firm’s assets and paying its liabilities and discharging the claims of the partners. 5.1 Dissolution of Partnership As stated earlier dissolution of partnership changes the existing relationship between partners but the firm may continue its business as before. The dissolution of partnership may take place in any of the following ways: (1) Change in existing profit sharing ratio among partners; (2) Admission of a new partner; LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter you will be able to : • State the meaning of dissolution of partnership firm; • Differentiate between dissolution of partner- ship and dissolution of a partnership firm; • Describe the various modes of dissolution of the partnership firm; • Explain the rules relating to the settlement of claims among all partners; • Prepare Realisation Account; • Record journal entries and prepare the necessary ledger accounts to close the books of the firm and settlement of partners’ claim. Dissolution of Partnership Firm 5 2015-16 Page 2 227 Dissolution of Partnership Firm (3) Retirement of a partner; (4) Death of a partner; (5) Insolvency of a partner; (6) Completion of the venture, if partnership is formed for that; and (7) Expiry of the period of partnership, if partnership is for a specific period of time; 5.2 Dissolution of a firm Dissolution of a partnership firm may take place without the intervention of court or by the order of a court, in any of the ways specified later in this section. It may be noted that dissolution of the firm necessarily brings in dissolution of the partnership. Dissolution of a firm takes place in any of the following ways: 1. Dissolution by Agreement: A firm is dissolved : (a) with the consent of all the partners or (b) in accordance with a contract between the partners. 2. Compulsory Dissolution: A firm is dissolved compulsorily in the following cases: (a) when all the partners or all but one partner, become insolvent, rendering them incompetent to sign a contract; (b) when the business of the firm becomes illegal; or (c) when some event has taken place which makes it unlawful for the partners to carry on the business of the firm in partnership, e.g., when a partner who is a citizen of a country becomes an alien enemy because of the declaration of war with his country and India. 3. On the happening of certain contingencies: Subject to contract between the partners, a firm is dissolved : (a) if constituted for a fixed term, by the expiry of that term; (b) if constituted to carry out one or more ventures, by the completion thereof; (c) by the death of a partner; (d) by the adjudication of a partner as an insolvent. 4. Dissolution by Notice: In case of partnership at will, the firm may be dissolved if any one of the partners gives a notice in writing to the other partners, signifying his intention of seeking dissolution of the firm. 5. Dissolution by Court: At the suit of a partner, the court may order a partnership firm to be dissolved on any of the following grounds: (a) when a partner becomes insane; (b) when a partner becomes permanently incapable of performing his duties as a partner; (c) when a partner is guilty of misconduct which is likely to adversely affect the business of the firm; 2015-16 Page 3 228 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts (d) when a partner persistently commits breach of partnership agreement; (e) when a partner has transferred the whole of his interest in the firm to a third party; (f) when the business of the firm cannot be carried on except at a loss; or (g) when, on any ground, the court regards dissolution to be just and equitable. Distinction between Dissolution of Partnership and Dissolution of Firm Basis Dissolution of Partnership Dissolution of Firm 1. Termination of The business is not The business of the firm is business terminated. closed. 2. Settlement of Assets and liabilities are Assets are sold and assets and revalued and new balance liabilities are paid-off. liabilities sheet is drawn. 3. Court’s Court does not intervene A firm can be dissolved by intervention because partnership is the court’s order. dissolved by mutual agreement. 4. Economic Economic relationship Economic relationship relationship between the partners between the partners continues though in comes to an end. a changed form. 5. Closure of books Does not require because The books of account are the business is not closed. terminated. 6. Other dissolution It may or may not involve It necessarily involves dissolution of the firm. dissolution of partnership. Test your Understanding – I State giving reasons, which of the following statements are true or false: 1. Dissolution of a partnership is different from dissolution of a firm, 2. A partnership is dissolved when there is a death of a partner, 3. A firm is dissolved when all partners give consent to it. 4. A firm is compulsorily dissolved when a partner decide to retire. 5. Dissolution of a firm necessarily involves dissolution of partnership. 6. A firm is compulsorily dissolved when all partners or when all except one partner become involvent. 7. Court can order a firm to be dissolved when a partner becomes insane. 8. Dissolution of partnership can not take place without intervention of the court. 2015-16 Page 4 229 Dissolution of Partnership Firm 5.3 Settlement of Accounts In case of dissolution of a firm, the firm ceases to conduct business and has to settle its accounts. For this purpose, it disposes off all its assets for satisfying all the claims against it. In this context it should be noted that, subject to agreement among the partners, the following rules as provided in Section 48 of the Partnership Act 1932 shall apply. (a) Treatment of Losses Losses, including deficiencies of capital, shall be paid : (i) first out of profits, (ii) next out of capital of partners, and (iii) lastly, if necessary, by the partners individually in their profits sharing ratio. (b) Application of Assets The assets of the firm, including any sum contributed by the partners to make up deficiencies of capital, shall be applied in the following manner and order: (i) In paying the debts of the firm to the third parties; (ii) In paying each partner proportionately what is due to him/her from the firm for advances as distinguished from capital (i.e. partner’ loan); (iii) In paying to each partner proportionately what is due to him on account of capital; and (iv) the residue, if any, shall be divided among the partners in their profit sharing ratio. Thus, the amount realised from assets along with contribution from partners, if required, shall be utilised first to pay off the outside liabilities of the firm such as creditors, loans, bank overdraft, bill payables, etc. (it may be noted that secured loans have precedence over the unsecured loans); the balance should be applied to repay loans and advances made by the partners to the firm. (in case the balance amount is not adequate enough to pay off such loans and advances, they are to be paid propartionately); and surplus, if any is to be utilised in settlement of the capital account balances, after adjusting all profits and losses. Private Debts and Firm’s Debts: Where both the debts of the firm and private debts of a partner co-exist, the following rules, as stated in Section 49 of the Act, shall apply. (a) The property of the firm shall be applied first in the payment of debts of the firm and then the surplus, if any, shall be divided among the partners as per their claims, which can be utilised for payment of their private liabilities. (b) The private property of any partner shall be applied first in payment of his private debts and the surplus, if any, may be utilised for payment of the firm’s debts, in case the firm’s liabilities exceed the firm’s assets. It may be noted that the private property of the partner does not include the personal properties of his wife and children. Thus, if the assets of the firm are not adequate enough to pay off firm’s liabilities, the partners have to contribute out of their net private assets (private assets minus private liabilities). 2015-16 Page 5 230 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Inability of a Partner to Contribute Towards Deficiency In the context of settlement of accounts among the partners there is still another important aspect to be noted, i.e., when a partner is unable to contribute towards the deficiency of his capital account (the account finally showing a debit balance), he/she is said to be insolvent, and the sum not recoverable is treated as capital loss for the firm. In the absence of any agreement, to the contrary, such a capital loss is to be borne by the remaining solvent partners in accordance with the principle laid down in Garner vs. Murray case, which states that the solvent partners have to bear such loss in the ratio of their capitals as on the date of dissolution. However, the accounting treatment relating to dissolution of partnership on account of insolvency of partners is not being taken up at this stage. 5.4 Accounting Treatment When the firm is dissolved, its books of account are to be closed and the profit or loss arising on realisation of its assets and discharge of liabilities is to be computed. For this purpose, a Realisation Account is prepared to ascertain the net effect (profit or loss) of realisation of assets and payment of liabilities which may be is transferred to partner’s capital accounts in their profit sharing ratio. Hence, all assets (other than cash in hand bank balance and fictitious assets, if any), and all external liabilities are transferred to this account. It also records the sale of assets, and payment of liabilities and realisation expenses. The balance in this account is termed as profit or loss on realisation which is transferred to partners’ capital accounts in thier profit sharing ratio (see figure 5.1) Dr. Realisation Account Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Land and Building xxx Sundry creditors xxx Plant and Machinery xxx Bills payables xxx Furniture and Fittings xxx Bank overdraft xxx Bills receivables xxx Outstanding expenses xxx Sundry debtors xxx Provision for doubtful debts xxx Cash/Bank xxx Cash/Bank (sale of assets) xxx (payment of liabilities) Partner’s capital account xxx Cash/Bank xxx (assets taken by the partner) (payment of unrecorded liabilities) Loss (transferred to partners xxx Partner’s capital account xxx capital accounts) (liability assumed by the partner) Profit (transferred to partners’ xxx capital account’s in their profit sharing ratio) Total xxxxx Total xxxxx Fig. 5.1: Format of Realisation Account 2015-16 Page 6 231 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Illustration 1 Supriya and Monika are partners, who share profit in the ratio of 3:2. Following is the balance sheet as on March 31, 2014. Balance Sheet of Supriya and Monika as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Supriya’s Capital 32,500 Cash and Bank 40,500 Monika’s Capital 11,500 Stock 7,500 Sundry Creditors 48,000 Sundry debtors 21,500 Reserve fund 13,500 Less: Provision 500 21,000 for doubtful debts Fixed Assets 36,500 1,05,500 1,05,500 The firm was dissolved on March 31, 2014. Close the books of the firm with the following information: (i) Debtors realised at a discount of 5%, (ii) Stock realised at Rs.7,000, (iii) Fixed assets realised at Rs.42,000, (iv) Realisation expenses of Rs.1,500, (v) Creditors are paid in full. Prepare necessary ledger accounts. Solution Books of Supriya and Monika Realisation Account Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Assets transferred: Provision for doubtful debts 500 Stock 7,500 Sundry creditors 48,000 Sundry debtors 21,500 Bank Fixed assets 36,500 Debtors 20,425 Bank Stock 7,000 Creditors 48,000 Fixed assets 42,000 69,425 Realisation expenses 1,500 Profit transferred to: Supriya Capital 1,755 Monika Capital 1,170 2,925 1,17,925 1,17,925 2015-16 Page 7 232 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Partners Capital Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Supriya Monika Date Particulars J.F. Supriya Monika (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Bank 42,355 18,070 Balance b/d 32,500 11,500 Reserve fund 8,100 5,400 Realisation (Profit) 1,755 1,170 42,355 18,070 42,355 18,070 Cash and Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 40,500 Realisation 48,000 Realisation 69,425 Realisation 1,500 Supriya’s Capital 42,355 Monika’s Capital 18,070 1,09,925 1,09,925 5.4.1 Journal Entries 1. For trnasfer of assets All asset accounts excluding cash, bank and the fictitious assets, if any are closed by transfer to the debit of Realisation Account at their book values. It may be noted that sundry debtors are transferred at gross value and the provision for doubtful debts is transferred to the credit side of Realisation Account along with liabilities. The same thing will apply to fixed assets, if provision for depreciation account is maintained. Realisation A/c Dr. To Assets (Individually) A/c 2. For transfer of liabilities All external liability accounts including provisions, if any, are closed by transferring them to the credit of Realisation account. Liabilities (individually) Dr. To Realisation A/c 3. For sale of assets Bank A/c Dr. To Realisation A/c 4. For an asset taken over by a partner Partner’s Capital A/c Dr. To Realisation A/c 2015-16 Page 8 233 Dissolution of Partnership Firm 5. For payment of liabilities Realisation A/c Dr. To Bank A/c 6. For a liability which a partner takes responsibility to discharge Ralisation A/c Dr. To Partner’s Capital A/c 7. For settlement with the creditor through transfer of assets when a creditor accepts an asset in full and final settlement of his account, journal entry needs to be recorded. But, if the creditor accepts an asset only as part payment of his/her dues, the entry will be made for cash payment only. For example, a creditor to whom Rs. 10,000 was due accepts office equipment worth Rs. 8,000 and is paid Rs. 2,000 in cash, the following entry shall be made for the payment of Rs. 2,000 only. Realisation A/c Dr. To Bank A/c However, when a creditor accepts an asset whose value is more than the amount due to him, he/she will pay cash to the frim for the difference for which the entry will be: Bank A/c Dr. To Realisation A/c 8. For payment of realisation expenses (a) When some expenses are incurred and paid by the firm in the process of realisation of assets and payment of liabilities: Realisation A/c Dr. To Bank A/c (b) When realisation expenses are paid by a partner on behalf of the firm: Realisation A/c Dr. To Partner’s Capital A/c (c) When a partner has agreed to undertake the dissolution work for an agreed remuneration bear the realisation expenses: (i) if payment of realisation expenses is made by the firm Partner’s Capital A/c Dr. To Bank A/c (ii) if the partner himself pays the realisation expenses, no entry is required (iii) For agreed remuneration to such partner Realisation A/c Dr. To Partner’s Capital A/c 2015-16 Page 9 234 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts 9. For realisation of any unrecorded assets including goodwill, if any Bank A/c Dr. To Realisation A/c 10.For settlement of any unrecorded liability Realisation A/c Dr. To Bank A/c 11.For transfer of profit and loss on realisation (a) In case of profit on realisation Realisation A/c Dr. To Partners’ Capital A/c (individually) A/c (b) In case of loss on realisation Partners’ Capital A/c (individually) Dr. To Realisation A/c 12.For transfer of accumulated profits in the form of reserve fund or general reserve: Reserve Fund/General Reserve A/c Dr. To Partners’ Capital A/c (individually) 13.For transfer of fictitious assets, if any, to partners’ capital accounts in their profit sharing ratio: Partners’ Capital A/c (individually) Dr. To Fictitious Asset A/c 14.For payment of loans due to partners Partner’s Loan A/c Dr. To Bank A/c 15.For settlement of partners’ accounts If the partner’s capital account shows a debit balance, he brings in the necessary cash for which the entry will be: Bank A/c Dr. To Partner’s Capital A/c The balance is paid to partners whose capital accounts show a credit balance and the following entry is recorded. Partners’ Capitals A/cs (individually) Dr. To Bank A/c It may be noted that the aggregate amount finally payable to the partners must equal to the amount available in bank and cash accounts. Thus, all accounts of a firm are closed in case of dissolution. 2015-16 Page 10 235 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Test your Understanding – II Tick (✓) the Correct Answer 1. On dissolution of a firm, bank overdraft is transferred to : (a) Cash Account (b) Bank Account (c) Realisation Aaccount (d) Partner’s capital Account. 2. On dissolution of a firm, partner’s loan account is transferred to: (a) Realisation Account (b) Partner’s Capital Account (c) Partner’s Current Account (d) None of the above. 3. After transferring liabilities like creditors and bills payables in the Realisation Account, in the absence of any information regarding then payment, such liabilities are treated as: (a) Never paid (b) Fully paid (c) Partly paid (d) None of the above. 4. When realisation expenses are paid by the firm on behalf of a partner, such expenses are debited to: (a) Realisation Account (b) Partner’s Capital Account (c) Partner’s Loan Account (d) None of the above. 5. Unrecorded assets when taken over by a partner are shown in : (a) Debit of Realisation Account (b) Debit of Bank Account (c) Credit of Realisation Account (d) Credit of Bank Account. 6. Unrecorded liabilities when paid are shown in: (a) Debit of Realisation Account (b) Debit of Bank Account (c) Credit of Realisation Account (d) Credit of Bank Account. 7. The accumulated profits and reserves are transferred to : (a) Realisation Account (b) Partners’ Capital Accounts (c) Bank Account (d) None of the above. 8. On dissolution of the firm, partner’s capital accounts are closed through: (a) Realisation Account (b) Drawings Account (c) Bank Account (d) Loan Account. 2015-16 Page 11 236 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Illustration 2 Sita, Rita and Meeta are partners sharing profit and losses in the ratio of 2:2:1 Their balance sheet as on March 31, 2015 is as follows: Balance Sheet of Sita, Rita and Meeta as on March 31, 2015 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Reserve fund 2,500 Cash at bank 2,500 Creditors 2,000 Stock 2,500 Capitals: Furniture 1,000 Sita 5,000 Debtors 2,000 Rita 2,000 Plant and Machinery 4,500 Meeta 1,000 8,000 12,500 12,500 They decided to dissolve the business. The following amounts were realised: Plant and Machinery Rs.4,250, Stock Rs.3,500, Debtors Rs.1850, Furniture 750. Sita agreed to bear all realisation expenses. For the service Sita is paid Rs.60. Actual expenses on realisation amounted to Rs.450.Creditors paid 2% less. There was an unrecorded assets of Rs.250, which was taken over by Rita at Rs.200. Prepare the necessary accounts to close the books of the firm. Solution Books of Sita, Rita and Meeta Dr. Realisation Account Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 2,000 Stock 2,500 Rita’s capital 200 Furniture 1,000 [Unrecorded assets] Debtors 2,000 Bank [assets realised]: Plant and Machinery 4,500 Plant and Machinery 4,250 Bank [Creditors] 1,960 Debtors 1,850 Sita’s capital 60 Stock 3,500 (realisation expenses] Furniture 750 10,350 Profit transferred to: Sita’s capital 212 Rita’s capital 212 Meeta’s capital 106 530 12,550 12,550 2015-16 Page 12 237 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Dr. Partner’s Capital Accounts Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Sita Rita Meeta Date Particulars J.F. Sita Rita Meeta (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Bank 450 Balance b/d 5,000 2,000 1,000 Realisation (asset) 200 Reserve fund 1,000 1,000 500 Bank 5,822 3,012 1,606 Realisation [profit] 212 212 106 Realisation (expenses) 60 — — 6,272 3,212 1,606 6,272 3,212 1,606 Dr. Bank Account Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 2,500 Realisation (Creditor) 1,960 Realisation Sita’s Capital 450 (assets realised) 10,350 [expenses] Sita’s Capital 5,822 Rita’s Capital 3,012 Meeta’s capital 1,606 12,850 12,850 llustration 3 Nayana and Arushi were partners sharing profits equally Their Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2015 was as follows: Balance Sheet of Nayana and Arushi as on March 31, 2012 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Capitals: Bank 30,000 Nayana 1,00,000 Debtors 25,000 Arushi 50,000 1,50,000 Stock 35,000 Creditors 20,000 Furniture 40,000 Arushi’s current account 10,000 Machinery 60,000 Workmen Compensation Fund 15,000 Nayana’s current account 10,000 Bank overdraft 5,000 2,00,000 2,00,000 The firm was dissolved on the above date: 1. Nayana took over 50% of the stock at 10% less on its book value, and the remaining stock was sold at a gain of 15%. Furniture and Machinery realised for Rs.30,000 and Rs.50,000 respectively; 2. There was an unrecorded investment which was sold for Rs. 25,000; 2015-16 Page 13 238 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts 3. Debtors realised 90% only and Rs.1,200 were recovered for bad debts written-off last year; 4. There was an outstanding bill for repairs which had to be paid for Rs.2,000. Record necessary journal entries and prepare ledger accounts to close the books of the firm. Solution Books of Nayana and Arushi Journal Date Particulars L.F. Debit Credit Amount Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation A/c Dr. 1,60,000 To Debtors 25,000 To Stock A/c 35,000 To Furniture A/c 40,000 To Machinery A/c 60,000 (Assets transferred to Realisation Account) Creditors A/c Dr. 20,000 Bank overdraft A/c Dr. 5,000 To Realisation A/c 25,000 (Liabilities transferred to Realisation Account) Realisation A/c Dr. 27,000 To Bank A/c 27,000 (Creditors, Bank overdraft, Outstanding repair bill paid) Bank A/c Dr. 1,57,825 To Realisation A/c 1,57,825 (Assets sold and bad debts recovered) Nayana’s Capital A/c Dr. 15,750 To Realisation A/c 15,750 (Half stock take over by Nayana at 10% less) Realisation A/c Dr. 15,575 To Nayana’s Current A/c 5,788 To Arushi’s Current A/c 5,787 (Realisation profit transferred to partner’s current account) Workman Compensation Fund A/c Dr. 15,000 To Nayana’s Current A/c 7,500 To Arushi’s Current A/c 7,500 (Compensation fund transfered to partners’ Current account) 2015-16 Page 14 239 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Arushi Current A/c Dr. 23,287 To Arushi’s Capital A/c 23,287 (Current account balance transferred to Capital account) Nayana Capital A/c Dr. 12,462 To Nayana’s Current A/c 12,462 (Current account balance transferred to Capital account) Nayana’s Capital A/c Dr. 87,538 Arushi’s Capital A/c Dr. 73,287 To Bank A/c 1,60,825 (Final amounts due to partners paid) Realisation Account Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 20,000 Debtors 25,000 Bank overdraft 5,000 Stock 35,000 Bank: Furniture 40,000 Investment 25,000 Machinery 60,000 1,60,000 Furniture 30,000 Bank: Machinery 50,000 Creditors 20,000 Debtors (90%) 31,500 Bank overdraft 5,000 Stock : 20,125 Outstanding bill 2,000 27,000 Bad debts Profit transferred to : recovered 1,200 1,57,825 Nayana’s capital 5,788 Nayana’s capital Arushi’s capital 5,787 11,575 (stock taken over) 15,750 1,98,575 1,98,575 Partners’ Current Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Nayana Arushi Date Particulars J.F. Nayana Arushi (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 10,000 Balance b/d 10,000 Realisation 15,750 Workmen 7,500 7,500 Arushi’s capital 23,287 Compensation Fund Realisation (profit) 5,788 5,787 Nayana’s Capital 12,462 25,750 23,287 25,750 23,287 2015-16 Page 15 240 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Partner’s Current Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Nayana Arushi Date Particulars J.F. Nayana Arushi (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Nayana’s current 12,462 Balance b/d 1,00,000 50,000 account Arushi’s 23,287 Bank 87,538 73,287 current account 1,00,000 73,287 1,00,000 73,287 Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 30,000 Realisation 27,000 Realisation 1,57,825 Nayana’s capital 87,538 Arushi’s capital 73,287 1,87,825 1,87,825 Test your Understanding – III Fill in the Correct Word(s): 1. All assets (except cash/bank and fictitious assets) are transferred to the ————— (Debit/Credit) side of ——————— Account (Realisation/Capital). 2. All ————— (internal/external) liabilities are transferred to the ————— (Debit/Credit) side of ——————acccount (Bank/Realisation). 3. Accumulated losses are transferred to ————— (Current/Capital Accounts) in —————— (equal ratio/profit sharing ratio). 4. If a liability is assumed by a partner, such Partner’s Capital Account is ––––––– ——— (debited/credited). 5. If a partner takes over an asset, such (Partner’s Capital Account) is ———————— (debited/credited). 6. No entry is required when a ——————— (partner/creditor) accepts a fixed asset in payment of his dues. 7. When creditor accepts an asset whose value is more than the amount due to him, he will ———————— (pay/not pay) the excess amount which will be credited ———————— Account. 8. When the firm has agreed to pay the partner a fixed amount for realisation work irrespective of the actual amount spent, such fixed amount is debited to (Realisation/Capital) Account and Credited to (Capital/Bank) Account. 9. Partner’s loan is —————— (recorded/not recorded) in the (Realisation Account). 10. Partner’s current accounts are transferred to respective ———————— Partners’ (Loan/Capital) Accounts. 2015-16 Page 16 241 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Illustration 4 Following is the Balance Sheet of Ashwani and Bharat on March 31, 2014. Balance Sheet Ashwani and Bharat as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 76,000 Cash at bank 17,000 Mrs.Ashwani’s loan 10,000 Stock 10,000 Mrs.Bharat loan 20,000 Investments 20,000 Investment fluctuation fund 2,000 Debtors 40,000 Reserve fund 20,000 Less: Provision Capitals: for doubtful debts 4,000 36,000 Ashwani 20,000 Buildings 70,000 Bharat 20,000 40,000 Goodwill 15,000 1,68,000 1,68,000 The firm was dissolved on that date. The following was agreed transactions took place. (i) Aswhani promised to pay Mrs. Ashwani’s loan and took away stock for Rs.8,000. (ii) Bharat took away half of the investment at 10% less. Debtors realised for Rs.38,000. Creditor’s were paid at less of Rs.380. Buildings realised for Rs.1,30,000, Goodwill Rs.12,000 and the remaining Investment were sold at Rs.9,000. An old typewriter not recorded in the books was taken over by Bharat for Rs. 600. Realisation expenses amounted to Rs. 2,000. Prepare Realisation Account, Partner’s Capital Account and Bank Account. Solution Books of Ashwani and Bharat Dr. Realisation Account Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Investment 20,000 Provision for doubtful debts 4,000 Debtors 40,000 Creditors 76,000 Buildings 70,000 Mrs. Ashwani loan 10,000 Stock 10,000 Mrs. Bharat loan 20,000 Goodwill 15,000 1,55,000 Investment fluctuation fund 2,000 Ashwani’s Capital 10,000 Ashwani’s Capital[stock] 8,000 (Mrs.Ashwani’s loan} Bharat’s capital (Typewriter) 600 Bank (Mrs. Bharat’s loan) 20,000 Bharat’s capital (Investment) 9,000 Bank (creditors) 75,620 Bank: Bank (realisation expenses) 2,000 Investment 9,000 Profit transferred to: Debtors 38,000 Ashwani’s Capital 27,990 Buildings 1,30,000 Bharat’s Capital 27,990 55,980 Goodwill 12,000 1,89,000 3,18,600 3,18,600 2015-16 Page 17 242 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Partner’s Capital Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Ashwani Bharat Date Particulars J.F. Ashwani Bharat (Rs,) (Rs,) (Rs,) (Rs,) Realisation Balance b/d 20,000 20,000 (stock) 8,000 — Reserve fund 10,000 10,000 Realisation Realisation 10,000 — [sale of typewriter] 600 [Mrs. Ashwini’s Realisation loan] [investment] 9,000 Realisation (profit) 27,990 27,990 Bank 59,990 48,390 67,990 57,990 67,990 57,990 Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 17,000 Realisation [creditors] 75,620 Realisation 1,89,000 Realisation [expenses] 2,000 Realisation (Mrs.Bharat’s loan) 20,000 Ashwani’s capital 59,990 Bharat’s capital 48,390 2,06,000 2,06,000 Do it Yourself Give the journal entry(ies) to be recorded for the following, in case of the dissolution of a partnership firm. 1. For closure of assets accounts. 2. For closure of liabilities accounts. 3. For sale of assets. 4. For settlement of a creditor by transfer of fixed assets to him. 5. For expenses of realisation when actual expenses are paid by the partner on behalf of the firm. 6. When a partner discharges the liability of the firm. 7. For payment of partner’s loan. 8. For settlement of capital accounts. Illustration 5 Sonia, Rohit and Udit are partners sharing profits in the ratio of 5:3:2. Their Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2014 was as follows: 2015-16 Page 18 243 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Balance Sheet of Sonia, Rohit and Udit as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 30,000 Buildings 2,00,000 Bills payable 30,000 Machinery 40,000 Bank loan 1,20,000 Stock 1,60,000 Sonia’s husband’s loan 1,30,000 Bills receivable 1,20,000 General reserve 80,000 Furniture 80,000 Capitals: Cash at bank 60,000 Sonia 70,000 Rohit 90,000 Udit 1,10,000 2,70,000 6,60,000 6,60,000 The firm was dissolved on that date. Close the books of the firm with following information: 1. Buildings realised for Rs.1,90,000, Bills receivable realised for Rs.1,10,000; Stock realised Rs.1,50,000; and Machinery sold for Rs.48,000 and furniture for Rs. 75,000, 2. Bank loan was settled for Rs.1,30,000. Creditors and Bills payable were settled at 10% discount, 3. Rohit paid the realisation expenses of Rs.10,000 and he was to get a remuneration of Rs.12,000 for completing the dissolution process. Prepare necessary ledger accounts. Solution Books of Sonia, Rohit and Udit Dr. Realisation Account Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Buildings 2,00,000 Creditors 30,000 Machinery 40,000 Bills payable 30,000 Stock 1,60,000 Bank loan 1,20,000 Bills receivable 1,20,000 Sonia’s husband’s loan 1,30,000 Furniture 80,000 6,00,000 Bank: Bank (Bank Loan) 1,30,000 Buildings 1,90,000 Bank Bills receivable 1,10,000 [creditors and Bills payable] 54,000 Stock 1,50,000 Bank [Sonia’s husbands loan] 1,30,000 Machinery 48,000 Rohit’s capital 12,000 Furniture 75,000 5,73,000 (reslisation expenses) Loss transferred to capital accounts: Sonia 21,500 Rohit 12,900 Udit 8,600 43,000 9,26,000 9,26,000 2015-16 Page 19 244 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Partner’s Capital Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Sonia Rohit Udit Date Particulars J.F. Sonia Rohit Udit (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation 21,500 12,900 8,600 Balance b/d 70,000 90,000 1,10,000 (Loss) Realisation — 12,000 — Bank 88,500 1,13,100 1,17,400 (expenses) General 40,000 24,000 16,000 reserve 1,10,000 1,26,000 1,26,000 1,10,000 1,26,000 1,26,000 Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 60,000 Realisation [bank loan] 1,30,000 Realisation 5,73,000 Realisation 54,000 (assets realised) [creditors and bills payable] Realisation 1,30,000 (Sonia’s husband loan) Sonia’s capital 88,500 Rohit’s capital 1,13,100 Udit’s capital 1,17,400 6,33,000 6,33,000 Note: No entry has been recorded in firm’s books for the actual realisation expenses incurred by Rohit because he gets Rs. 12,000 as his remuneration which has been duly accounted for. Illustration 6 Romesh and Bhawan were in partnership sharing profit and losses as 3:2. Their Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2014, was as follows: Balance Sheet of Romesh and Bhawan as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Bank loan 60,000 Cash at bank 30,000 Creditors 80,000 Debtors 70,000 Bills payables 40,000 Stock 2,00,000 Bhawan loan 20,000 Investments 1,40,000 Capitals: Buildings 60,000 Romesh 1,00,000 Bhawan 2,00,000 3,00,000 5,00,000 5,00,000 2015-16 Page 20 245 Dissolution of Partnership Firm They decided to dissolve the firm. The following information is available: 1. Debtors were recovered 5% less. Stock was realised at books value and building was sold for Rs.51,000, 2. It is found that investment not recorded in the books amounted to Rs.10,000. The same were accepted by one creditor for this amount and other Creditors were paid at a discount of 10%. Bills payable were paid full, 3. Romesh took over some of the Investments at Rs.8,100 (book value less 10%). The remaining investment were taken over by Bhawan at 90% of the book value less Rs.900 discount, 4. Bhawan paid bank loan along with one year interest at 6% p.a, 5. An unrecorded liability of Rs.5,000 paid. Close the books of the firm and prepare necessary ledger accounts. Solution Books of Romesh and Bhawan Realisation Account Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Bank loan 60,000 Debtors 70,000 Creditors 80,000 Stock 2,00,000 Bills payable 40,000 Investments 1,40,000 Romesh’s Capital (investment) 8,100 Buildings 60,000 4,70,000 Bhawan’s Capital (investment) 1,17,000 Bank (bills payable) 40,000 Bank: Bank (creditors) 63,000 Debtors 66,500 Bhawan’s capital 63,600 Stock 2,00,000 (loan with interest) Buildings 51,000 3,17,500 Bank (unrecorded liabilities) 5,000 Loss transferred to : Romesh capital 11,400 Bhawan capital 7,600 19,000 6,41,600 6,41,600 Partner’s Capital Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Romesh Bhawan Date Particulars J.F. Romesh Bhawan (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation 8,100 1,17,000 Balance b/d 1,00,000 2,00,000 [investment] Realisation 63,600 Realisation [bank loan] [loss] 11,400 7,600 Bank 80,500 1,39,000 1,00,000 2,63,600 1,00,000 2,63,600 2015-16 Page 21 246 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 30,000 Realisation[creditor] 63,000 Realisation 3,17,500 Realisation 5,000 (assets realised) [unrecorded liability] Bhawan loan 20,000 Realisation 40,000 (bills payable] Romesh‘s capital 80,500 Bhawan’s capital 1,39,000 3,47,500 3,47,500 Note: No entry has been made for acceptance of unrecorded investments by a creditor as part payment of his dues as per rules. Illustration 7 Sonu and Ashu sharing profits as 3:1 and they agree upon dissolution. The Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2014 is as under: Balance Sheet of Sonu and Ashu as on March 31, 2012 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Loan 12,000 Cash at bank 25,000 Creditors 18,000 Stock 45,000 Capital Furniture 16,000 Sonu 1,10,000 Debtors 70,000 Ashu 68,000 1,78,000 Plant and Machinery 52,000 208,000 2,08,000 Sonu took over plant and machinery at an agreed value of Rs.60,000. Stock and Furniture were sold for Rs.42,000 and Rs.13,900 respectively. Debtors were took over by Ashu at Rs.69,000. Creditors were paid subject to discount of Rs.900. Sonu agrees to pay the loans. Realisation expenses were Rs.1,600. Prepare Realisation Account, Bank Account and Capital Accounts of the Partners. 2015-16 Page 22 247 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Solution Books of Sonu and Ashu Realisation Account Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Stock 45,000 Loan 12,000 Furniture 16,000 Creditors 18,000 Debtors 70,000 Sonu’s capital 60,000 Plant and Machinery 52,000 (plant& machinery) Bank (creditors) 17,100 Ashu’s capital (debtors) 69,000 Sonu’s capital (loan) 12,000 Bank: Bank (realisation expenses) 1,600 Stock 42,000 Profit transferred to : Furniture 13,900 55,900 Sonu’s capital 900 Ashu’s capital 300 1,200 2,14,900 2,14,900 Partners Capital Accounts Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Sonu Ashu Date Particulars J.F. Sonu Ashu (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation 60,000 Balance b/d 1,10,000 68,000 [plant and machinery] Realisation [loan] 12,000 Realisation 69,000 Realisation [profit] 900 300 [debtors] Bank 700 Bank 62,900 1,22,900 69,000 1,22,900 69,000 Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 25,000 Realisation [creditor] 17,100 Realisation (assets 55,900 Realisation [expenses] 1,600 realised) Sonu’s capital 62,900 Ashu’s capital 700 81,600 81,600 Illustration 8 Anju, Manju and Sanju sharing profit in the ratio of 3:1:1 decided to dissolve their firm. On March 31, 2014 their position was as follows: 2015-16 Page 23 248 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Balance Sheet Anju, Manju and Sanju as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 60,000 Cash at bank 35,000 Loan 15,000 Stock 83,000 Capitals: Furniture 12,000 Anju 2,75,000 Debtors 2,42,000 Manju 1,10,000 Less: Provision for Sanju 1,00,000 4,85,000 doubtful debts 12,000 2,30,000 Buildings 2,00,000 5,60,000 5,60,000 It is agreed that: 1. Anju takes over the Furniture at Rs.10,000 and Debtors amounting to Rs.2,00,000 at Rs.1,85,000. Anju also agrees to pay the creditors, 2. Manju is to take over Stock at book value and Buildings at book value less 10%, 3. Sanju is to take over remaining Debtors at 80% of book value and responsibility for the discharge of the loan, 4. The expenses of dissolution amounted to Rs.2,200. Prepare Realisation Account, Bank Account and Capital Accounts of the partners. Solution Books of Anju, Manju and Sanju Dr. Realisation Account Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Provision for doubtful debts 12,000 Stock 83,000 Creditors 60,000 Furniture 12,000 Loan 15,000 Debtors 2,42,000 Anju’s capital : Buildings 2,00,000 5,37,000 Furniture 10,000 Anju capital (creditors) 60,000 Debtors 1,85,000 1,95,000 Sanju capital (loan) 15,000 Manju’s capital : Bank (realisation expenses) 2,200 Stock 83,000 Buildings 1,80,000 2,63,000 Sanju’s capital : (remaning debtors less 20% of book value) 33,600 Loss transferred to : Anju’s capital 21,360 Manju’s capital 7,120 Sanju’s capital 7,120 35,640 6,14,200 6,14,240 2015-16 Page 24 249 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Dr. Partner’s Capital Accounts Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Anju Manju Sanju Date Particulars J.F. Anju Manju Sanju (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation (assets) 1,95,000 2,63,000 33,600 Balance b/d 2,75,000 1,10,000 1,00,000 Realisation (loss) 21,360 7,120 7,120 Realisation 60,000 Bank 1,18,640 74,280 (creditors) Realisation 15,000 (loan) Bank 1,60,120 3,35,000 2,70,120 1,15,000 3,35,000 2,70,120 1,15,000 Dr. Bank Account Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 35,000 Realisation (expenses) 2,200 Manju’s capital 1,60,120 Anju’s capital 1,18,640 Sanju’s capital 74,280 1,95,120 1,95,120 Illustration 9 Sumit, Amit and Vinit are partners sharing profit in the ratio of 5:3:2. Their Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2014 was as follows: Balance Sheet of Sunit, Amit and Vinit as on March 31, 2012 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Capitals: Machinery 80,000 Sumit 40,000 Investments 1,50,000 Amit 50,000 Stock 10,000 Vinit 60,000 1,50,000 Debtors 35,000 Profit and Loss 10,000 Cash at bank 15,000 Mrs. Amit’s loan 40,000 Sundry creditors 90,000 2,90,000 2,90,000 The firm was dissolved on that date. Amit took over his wife’s loan. One of the Creditors for Rs.2,600 was not claim the amount. Other assets realised as follows: 1. Machinery was sold for Rs.70,000, 2. Investments with book value of Rs.1,00,000 were given to Creditors in full settlement of their account. The remaining Investments were took over by Vinit at an agreed value of Rs.45,000, 2015-16 Page 25 250 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts 3. Stock was sold for Rs.11,000 and Debtors for Rs.3,000 proved to be bad, 4. Realisation expenses were Rs.1,500. Prepare ledger accounts to close the books of the firm. Solution Books of Amit, Sumit and Vinit Realisation Account Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount Particulars Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Machinery 80,000 Sundry creditors 90,000 Investments 1,50,000 Mrs.Amit’s loan 40,000 Stock 10,000 Bank : Debtors 35,000 2,75,000 Machinery 70,000 Amit’s Capital (wife’s loan) 40,000 Stock 11,000 Bank (realisation expenses) 1,500 Debtors 32,000 1,13,000 Vinit’s capital (investment) 45,000 Loss transferred to : Amit’s capital 14,250 Sumit’s capital 8,550 Vinit’s capital 5,700 28,500 3,16,500 3,16,500 Dr. Partners Capital Accounts Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amit Sumit Vinit Date Particulars J.F. Amit Sumit Vinit (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation 45,000 Balance b/d 40,000 50,000 60,000 (assets) Realisation Realisation 14,250 8,550 5,700 (Mrs. Vinit’s 40,000 (loss) loan) Bank 70,750 44,450 11,300 Profit and Loss 5,000 3,000 2,000 85,000 53,000 62,000 85,000 53,000 62,000 Bank Account Dr. Cr. Date Particulars J.F. Amount Date Particulars J.F. Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Balance b/d 15,000 Realisation (expenses) 1,500 Realisation 1,13,000 Amit’s capital 70,750 (assets realised) Sumit’s capital 44,450 Vinit’s capital 11,300 1,28,000 1,28,000 Note: No entry has been made for the investments taken over by the creditors as per rules. 2015-16 Page 26 251 Dissolution of Partnership Firm Illustration 10 Meena and Tina are partners in a firm and sharing profit as 3:2. They decided to dissolve their firm on March 31, 2014 when their Balance Sheet was a follows: Balance Sheet Meena and Tina as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount (Rs.) Assets Amount (Rs.) Capital : Machinery 70,000 Meena 90,000 Investments 50,000 Tina 80,000 1,70,000 Stock 22,000 Sundry creditors 60,000 Sundry Debtors 1,03,000 Bills payable 20,000 Cash at bank 5,000 2,50,000 2,50,000 The assets and liabilities were disposed off as follows : (a) Machinery were given to creditors in full settlement of their account and Stock were given to bills payable in full settlement. (b) Investment were took over by Tina at book value. Sundry debtors of book value Rs. 50,000 took over by Meena at 10% less and remaining debtors realised Rs. 51,000. (c) Realisation expenses amount to Rs. 2,000. Prepare necessary ledger accounts to close the book of the firm. Solution Books of Meena and Tina – Realisation Account Particulars Amount (Rs.) Particulars Amount (Rs.) Assets transferred : Sundry creditors 60,000 Machinery 70,000 Bills payable 20,000 Investments 50,000 Tina’s Capital (investment) 50,000 Stock 22,000 Meena’s Capital (debtors of 45,000 Sundry debtors 1,03,000 2,45,000 books value Rs. 50,000 Bank (realisation expenses) 2,000 less 10%) Bank Debtors 51,000 Loss transferred to : Meena’s capital 12,600 Tena’s capital 8,400 21,000 2,47,000 2,47,000 Partner’s Capital Accounts Dr. Cr. Particulars Mena Tina Particulars Meena Tina (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) Realisation (investment) 50,000 Balance b/d 90,000 80,000 Realisation (debtors) 45,000 Realisation (loss) 12,600 8,400 Bank 32,400 21,600 90,000 80,000 90,000 80,000 2015-16 Page 27 252 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts Terms Introduced in the Chapter 1. Dissolution of Partnership 4. Compulsory Dissolution 2. Dissolution of Partnership 5. Dissolution by Notice Firm 6. Realisation Expenses 3. Partnership at Will 7. Realisation Account Summary 1. Dissolution of Partnership Firm : The dissolution of a firm implies the discontinuance of partnership business and separation of economic relations between the partners. In the case of a dissolution of a firm, the firm closes its business altogether and realises all its assets and pays all its liabilities. The payment is made to the creditors first out of the assets realised and, if necessary, next out of the contributions made by the partners in their profit sharing ratio. When all accounts are settled and the final payment is made to the partners for the amounts due to them, the books of the firm are closed. 2. Dissolution of Partnership : A partnership gets terminated in case of admission, retirement death, etc. of a partner. This does not necessarily involve dissolution of the firm. 3. Realisation Account : The Realisation Account is prepared to record the transactions relating to sale and realisation of assets and settlement of creditors. Any profit or loss arising act of this process is shared by partners’ in their profit sharing ratio. Partners’ accounts are also settled and the Cash or Bank account is closed. Questions for Practice Short Answer Questions 1. State the difference between dissolution of partnership and dissolution of partnership firm. 2. State the accounting treatment for: i. Unrecorded assets ii. Unrecorded liabilities 3. On dissolution, how will you deal with partner’s loan if it appears on the (a) assets side of the balance sheet, (b) liabilities side of balance sheet. Bank Account Dr. Cr. Particulars Amount (Rs.) Particulars Amount (Rs.) Balance b/d 5,000 Realisation (expenses) 2,000 Realisation (assets realised) 51,000 Mena’s capital 32,400 Tina’s capital 21,600 56,000 56,000 2015-16 Page 28 253 Dissolution of Partnership Firm 4. Distinguish between firm’s debts and partner’s private debts. 5. State the order of settlement of accounts on dissolution. 6. On what account realisation account differs from revaluation account. Long Answer Questions 1. Explain the process dissolution of partnership firm? 2. What is a Realisation Account? 3. Reproduce the format of Realisation Account. 4. How deficiency of crditors is paid off? Numerical Questions 1. Journalise the following transactions regarding realisation expenses : [a] Realisation expenses amounted to Rs.2,500. [b] Realisation expenses amounting to Rs.3,000 were paid by Ashok, one of the partners. [c] Realisation expenses Rs.2,300 borne by Tarun, personally. [d] Amit, a partner was appointed to realise the assets, at a cost of Rs.4,000. The actual amount of realisation amounted to Rs.3,000. 2. Record necessary journal entries in the following cases: [a] Creditors worth Rs.85,000 accepted Rs.40,000 as cash and Investment worth Rs.43,000, in full settlement of their claim. [b] Creditors were Rs.16,000. They accepted Machinery valued at Rs.18,000 in settlement of their claim. [c] Creditors were Rs.90,000. They accepted Buildings valued Rs.1,20,000 and paid cash to the firm Rs.30,000. 3. There was an old computer which was written-off in the books of accounts in the pervious year. The same has been taken over by a partner Nitin for Rs.3,000. Journalise the transaction, supposing. That the firm has been dissolved. 4. What journal entries will be recorded for the following transactions on the dissolution of a firm: [a] Payment of unrecorded liabilities of Rs.3,200. [b] Stock worth Rs.7,500 is taken by a partner Rohit. [c] Profit on Realisation amounting to Rs.18,000 is to be distributed between the partners Ashish and Tarun in the ratio of 5:7. [d] An unrecorded asset realised Rs.5,500. 5. Give journal entries for the following transactions : 1. To record the realisation of various assets and liabilities, 2. A Firm has a Stock of Rs. 1,60,000. Aziz, a partner took over 50% of the Stock at a discount of 20%, 3. Remaining Stock was sold at a profit of 30% on cost, 4. Land and Buildging (book value Rs. 1,60,000) sold for Rs. 3,00,000 through a broker who charged 2%, commission on the deal, 5. Plant and Machinery (book value Rs. 60,000) was handed over to a Creditor at an agreed valuation of 10% less than the book value, 6. Investment whose face value was Rs. 4,000 was realised at 50%. 2015-16 Page 29 254 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts 6. How will you deal with the realisation expenses of the firm of Rashim and Bindiya in the following cases: 1. Realisation expenses amounts to Rs. 1,00,000, 2. Realisation expenses amounting to Rs. 30,000 are paid by Rashim, a partner. 3. Realisation expenses are to be borne by Rashim for which he will be paid Rs. 70,000 as remuneration for completing the dissolution process. The actual expenses incurred by Rashim were Rs. 1,20,000. 7. The book value of assets (other than cash and bank) transferred to Realisation Account is Rs. 1,00,000. 50% of the assets are taken over by a partner Atul, at a discount of 20%; 40% of the remaining assets are sold at a profit of 30% on cost; 5% of the balance being obsolete, realised nothing and remaining assets are handed over to a Creditor, in full settlement of his claim. You are required to record the journal entries for realisation of assets. 8. Record necessary journal entries to record the following unrecorded assets and liabilities in the books of Paras and Priya: 1. There was an old furniture in the firm which had been written-off completely in the books. This was sold for Rs. 3,000, 2. Ashish, an old customer whose account for Rs. 1,000 was written-off as bad in the previous year, paid 60%, of the amount, 3. Paras agreed to takeover the firm’s goodwill (not recorded in the books of the firm), at a valuation of Rs. 30,000, 4. There was an old typewriter which had been written-off completely from the books. It was estimated to realize Rs. 400. It was taken away by Priya at an estimated price less 25%, 5. There were 100 shares of Rs. 10 each in Star Limited acquired at a cost of Rs. 2,000 which had been written-off completely from the books. These shares are valued @ Rs. 6 each and divided among the partners in their profit sharing ratio. 9. All partners wishes to dissolve the firm. Yastin, a partner wants that her loan of Rs. 2,00,000 must be paid off before the payment of capitals to the partners. But, Amart, another partner wants that the capitals must be paid before the payment of Yastin’s loan. You are required to settle the conflict giving reasons. 10. What journal entries would be recorded for the following transactions on the dissolution of a firm after various assets (other than cash) on the third party liabilities have been transferred to Reliasation account. 1. Arti took over the Stock worth Rs. 80,000 at Rs. 68,000. 2. There was unrecorded Bike of Rs. 40,000 which was taken over By Mr. Karim. 3. The firm paid Rs. 40,000 as compensation to employees. 4. Sundry creditors amounting to Rs. 36,000 were settled at a discount of 15%. 5. Loss on realisation Rs. 42,000 was to be distributed between Arti and Karim in the ratio of 3:4. 2015-16 Page 30 255 Dissolution of Partnership Firm 11. Rose and Lily shared profits in the ratio of 2:3. Their Balance Sheet on March 31, 2014 was as follows: Balance Sheet of Rose and Lily as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 40,000 Cash 16,000 Lily’s loan 32,000 Debtors 80,000 Profit and Loss 50,000 Less : Provision for Capitals: doubtful debts 3,600 76,400 Lily 1,60,000 Inventory 1,09,600 Rose 2,40,000 Bills receivable 40,000 Buildings 2,80,000 5,22,000 5,22,000 Rose and Lily decided to dissolve the firm on the above date. Assets (except bills receivables) realised Rs. 4,84,000. Bills Receivable were taken over by Rose at Rs. 30,000. Creditors agreed to take Rs. 38,000. Cost of realisation was Rs. 2,400. There was a Motor Cycle in the firm which was bought out of the firm’s money, was not shown in the books of the firm. It was now sold for Rs. 10,000. There was a contingent liability in respect of outstanding electric bill of Rs. 5,000 Bill Receivable taken over by Rose at Rs. 33,000. Show Realisation Account, Partners Capital Acount, Loan Account and Cash Account. (Ans : Realisation Profit Rs. 15,600, Total of Cash Account Rs. 5,10,000) 12. Shilpa, Meena and Nanda decided to dissolve their partnership on March 31,2014. Their profit sharing ratio was 3:2:1 and their Balance Sheet was as under: Balance Sheet of Shilpa, Meena and Nanda as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Capitals: Land 81,000 Shilpa 80,000 Stock 56,760 Meena 40,000 Debtors 18,600 Bank loan 20,000 Nanda’s capital 23,000 Creditors 37,000 Cash 10,840 Provision for doubtful debts 1,200 General reserve 12,000 1,90,200 1,90,200 2015-16 Page 31 256 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts The stock of value of Rs. 41,660 are taken over by Shilpa for Rs. 35,000 and she agreed to discharge bank loan. The remaining stock was sold at Rs. 14,000 and debtors amounting to Rs. 10,000 realised Rs. 8,000. land is sold for Rs. 1,10,000. The remaining debtors realised 50% at their book value. Cost of realisation amounted to Rs. 1,200. There was a typewriter not recorded in the books worth Rs. 6,000 which were taken over by one of the Creditors at this value. Prepare Realisation Account. (Ans : Profit on Realisation Rs. 20,940, Total of Cash Account Rs. 1,64,650) 13. Surjit and Rahi were sharing profits (losses) in the ratio of 3:2, their Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2014 is as follows: Balance Sheet of Surjit and Rahi as on March 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Creditors 38,000 Bank 11,500 Mrs. Surjit loan 10,000 Stock 6,000 Reserve 15,000 Debtors 19,000 Rahi’s loan 5,000 Furniture 4,000 Capital’s: Plant 28,000 Surjit 10,000 Investment 10,000 Rahi 8,000 Profit and Loss 7,500 86,000 86,000 The firm was dissolved on March 31, 2014 on the following terms: 1. Surjit agreed to take the investments at Rs. 8,000 and to pay Mrs. Surojit’s loan. 2. Other assets were realised as follows: Stock Rs. 5,000 Debtors Rs. 18,500 Furniture Rs. 4,500 Plant Rs. 25,000 3. Expenses on realisation amounted to Rs. 1,600. 4. Creditors agreed to accept Rs. 37,000 as a final settlement. You are required to prepare Realisation account, Partner’s Capital account and Bank account. (Ans : Loss on Realisation Rs. 6,600, Total of Cash Account Rs. 64,500) 14. Rita, Geeta and Ashish were partners in a firm sharing profits/losses in the ratio of 3:2:1. On March 31, 2014 their balance sheet was as follows: Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Capitals: Cash 22,500 Rita 80,000 Debtors 52,300 Geeta 50,000 Stock 36,000 Ashish 30,000 1,60,000 Investments 69,000 Creditors 65,000 Plant 91,200 Bills payable 26,000 General reserve 20,000 2,71,000 2,71,000 2015-16 Page 32 257 Dissolution of Partnership Firm On the date of above mentioned date the firm was dissolved: 1. Rita was appointed to realise the assets. Rita was to receive 5% commission on the rate of assets (except cash) and was to bear all expenses of realisation, 2. Assets were realised as follows: Rs. Debtors 30,000 Stock 26,000 Plant 42,750 3. Investments were realised at 85% of the book value, 4. Expenses of realisation amounted to Rs. 4,100, 5. Firm had to pay Rs. 7,200 for outstanding salary not provided for earlier, 6. Contingent liability in respect of bills discounted with the bank was also materialised and paid off Rs. 9,800, Prepare Realisation account, Capital Accounts of Partner’s and Cash Account. (Ans : Loss on Realisation Rs. 1,29,455, Total of Cash Account Rs. 1,65,705) 15. Anup and Sumit are equal partners in a firm. They decided to dissolve the parntership on December 31, 2014. When the balance sheet is as under : Balance Sheet of Anup and Sumit as on December 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Sundry Creditors 27,000 Cash at bank 11,000 Reserve fund 10,000 Sundry Debtors 12,000 Loan 40,000 Plants 47,000 Capital Stock 42,000 Anup 60,000 Lease hold land 60,000 Sumit 60,000 1,20,000 Furniture 25,000 1,97,000 1,97,000 The Assets were realised as follows : Rs. Lease hold land 72,000 Furniture 22,500 Stock 40,500 Plant 48,000 Sundry Debtors 10,5000 The Creditors were paid Rs. 25,500 in full settlement. Expenses of realisation amount to Rs. 2,500. Prepare Realisation Account, Bank Account, Partners Capital Accounts to close the books of the firm. (Ans : Realisation Profit Rs. 46,500) 2015-16 Page 33 258 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts 16. Ashu and Harish are partners sharing profit and losses as 3:2. They decided to dissolve the firm on December 31, 2014. Their balance sheet on the above date was: Balance Sheet of Ashu and Harish as on December 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Capitals: Building 80,000 Ashu 1,08,000 Machinery 70,000 Harish 54,000 1,62,000 Furniture 14,000 Creditors 88,000 Stock 20,000 Bank overdraft 50,000 Investments 60,000 Debtors 48,000 Cash in hand 8,000 3,00,000 3,00,000 Ashu is to take over the building at Rs. 95,000 and Machinery and Furniture is take over by Harish at value of Rs. 80,000. Ashu agreed to pay Creditor and Harish agreed to meet Bank overdraft. Stock and Investments are taken by both partner in profit sharing ratio. Debtors realised for Rs. 46,000, expenses of realisation amounted to Rs. 3,000. Prepare necessary ledger account. (Ans : Loss on Realisation Rs. 14,000, Cash/Bank Total Rs. 59,600) 17. Sanjay, Tarun and Vineet shared profit in the ratio of 3:2:1. On December 31,2012 their balance sheet was as follows : Balance Sheet of Sanjay, Tarun and Vineet as on December 31, 2012 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Capitals: Plant 90,000 Sanjay 1,00,000 Debtors 60,000 Tarun 1,00,000 Furniture 32,000 Vineet 70,000 2,70,000 Stock 60,000 Creditors 80,000 Investments 70,000 Bills payable 30,000 Bills receivable 36,000 Cash in hand 32,000 3,80,000 3,80,000 On this date the firm was dissolved. Sanjay was appointed to realise the assets. Sanjay was to receive 6% commission on the sale of assets (except cash) and was to bear all expenses of realisation. Sanjay realised the assets as follows : Plant Rs. 72,000, Debtors Rs. 54,000, Furniture Rs. 18,000, Stock 90% of the book value, Investments Rs. 76,000 and Bills receivable Rs.31,000. Expenses of realisation amounted to Rs.4,500. Prepare Realisation Account, Capital Accounts and Cash Account (Ans : Loss on Realisation Rs.61,300, Total of Cash Account Rs.3,37,000) 2015-16 Page 34 259 Dissolution of Partnership Firm 18. The following is the Balance Sheet of Gupta and Sharma as on December 31,2014: Balance Sheet of Gupta and Sharma as on December 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Sundry Creditors 38,000 Cash at bank 12,500 Mrs.Gupta’s loan 20,000 Sundry Debtors 55,000 Mrs.Sharma’s loan 30,000 Stock 44,000 Reserve fund 6,000 Bills receivable 19,000 Provision of doubtful debts 4,000 Machinery 52,000 Capital Investment 38,500 Gupta 90,000 Fixtures 27,000 Sharma 60,000 1,50,000 2,48,000 2,48,000 The firm was dissolved on December 31, 2014 and asset realised and settlements of liabilities as follows: (a) The realisation of the assets were as follows: Rs. Sundry Debtors 52,000 Stock 42,000 Bills receivable 16,000 Machinery 49,000 (b) Investment was taken over by Gupta at agreed value of Rs.36,000 and agreed to pay of Mrs. Gupta’s loan. (c) The Sundry Creditors were paid off less 3% discount. (d) The realisation expenses incurred amounted to Rs.1,200. Journalise the entries to be made on the dissolution and prepare Realisation Account, Bank Account and Partners Capital Accounts. (Ans : Loss on Realisation Rs.19,660, Total of Cash Account Rs.1,88,500) 19. Ashok, Babu and Chetan are in partnership sharing profit in the proportion of 1/2, 1/3, 1/6 respectively. They dissolve the partnership of the December 31, 2014, when the balance sheet of the firm as under: Balance Sheet of Ashok, Babu and Chetan as on December 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Sundry Creditors 20,000 Bank 7,500 Bills payable 25,500 Sundry Debtors 58,000 Babu’s loan 30,000 Stock 39,500 Capital’s : Machinery 48,000 Ashok 70,000 Investment 42,000 Babu 55,000 Freehold property 50,500 Chetan 27,000 1,52,000 Current accounts : Ashok 10,000 Babu 5,000 Chetan 3,000 18,000 2,45,500 2,45,500 2015-16 Page 35 260 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts The Machinery was taken over by Babu for Rs.45,000, Ashok took over the Investment for Rs.40,000 and Freehold property took over by Chetan at Rs.55,000. The remaining Assets realised as follows: Sundry Debtors Rs.56,500 and Stock Rs.36,500. Sundry Creditors were settled at discount of 7%. A Office computer, not shown in the books of accounts realised Rs.9,000. Realisation expenses amounted to Rs.3,000. Prepare Realisation Account, Partners Capital Account, Bank Account. (Ans : Profit on Realisation Rs.1,200, Total of Cash Account Rs.1,34,100) 20. The following is the Balance sheet of Tanu and Manu, who shares profit and losses in the ratio of 5:3, On December 31,2014: Balance Sheet of Tanu and Manu as on December 31, 2014 Liabilities Amount Assets Amount (Rs.) (Rs.) Sundry Creditors 62,000 Cash at bank 16,000 Bills payable 32,000 Sundry Debtors 55,000 Bank loan 50,000 Stock 75,000 Reserve fund 16,000 Motor car 90,000 Capital Machinery 45,000 Tanu 1,10,000 Investment 70,000 Manu 90,000 2,00,000 Fixtures 9,000 3,60,000 3,60,000 On the above date the firm is dissolved and the following agreement was made: Tanu agree to pay the bank loan and took away the sundry debtors. Sundry creditors accepts stock and paid Rs.10,000 to the firm. Machinery is taken over by Manu for Rs.40,000 and agreed to pay of bills payable at a discount of 5%.. Motor car was taken over by Tanu for Rs.60,000. Investment realised Rs.76,000 and fixtures Rs.4,000. The expenses of dissolution amounted to Rs.2,200. Prepare Realisation Account, Bank Account and Partners Capital Accounts. (Ans : Loss on Ralisation Rs.37,600, Total of Cash Account Rs.1,06,000) Check-list to Check your Understanding Test your Understanding – I 1. True, 2 True, 3. True, 4. False, 5. True, 6. True, 7. True, 8. False. Test your Understanding – II 1. (c), 2. (d), 3. (b), 4. (d), 5. (c), 6. (a), 7. (b), 8. (c) Test your Understanding – III 1. Debit, Realisaton, 2. External, Credit, Realisation, 3. Capital Accounts, Profit sharing ratio. 4. Credited, 5. Debited, 6. Creditor, 7. Pay, Realisation, 8. Realisation, Capital, 9. Not recorded, 10. Capital. 2015-16

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