22body surface d. Tracheal tubes exchange O/ COdirectly with the haemocoel which 22 then exchange with tissues 2. Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong entry. a. Humidifies the air b. Warms up the air c. Diffusion of gases d. Cleans up the air 3. A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident, without any damage to the lungs its effect could be a. Reduced breathing rate b. Rapid increase in breathing rate c. No change in respiration d. Cessation of breathing 4. It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to animals because a. It reduces CO transportb. It reduces O transportc. It increases CO transportd. It destroys hemoglobin 2225. Mark the true statement among the following with reference to normal breathing a. Inspiration is a passive process where as expiration is active b. Inspiration is a active process where as expiration is passive c. Inspiration and expiration are active processes d. Inspiration and expiration are passive processes 6. A person breathes in some volume of air by forced inspiration after having a forced expiration. This quantity of air taken in is a. Total lung capacity b. Tidal volume c. Vital capacity d. Inspiratory capacity 7. Mark the incorrect statement in context to O2 binding to Hb a. Higher pH b. Lower temperature c. Lower pCOd. Higher PO2 2 8. Mark the correct pair of muscles involved in the normal breathing in humans a. External and internal intercostal muscles b. Diaphragm and abdominal muscles c. Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles d. Diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles 9. Incidence of Emphysema – a respiratory disorder is high in cigarette smokers. In such cases a. The bronchioles are found damaged b. The alveolar walls are found damaged c. The plasma membrane is found damaged d. The respiratory muscles are found damaged 10. Respiratory process is regulated by certain specialized centres in the brain. One of the following listed centres can reduce the inspiratory duration upon stimulation a. Medullary inspiratory centre b. Pneumotaxic centre c. Apneustic centre d. Chemosensitive centre BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS 11. CO2 dissociates from carbamino haemoglobin when a. pCO2 is high & pO2 is low b. pO is high and pCO is lowc. pCO2 and pO2 are equal d. None of the above 2 212. In breathing movements, air volume can be estimated by a. Stethoscope b. Hygrometer c. Sphignomanometer d. Spirometer 13. Identify the correct and incorrect match about respiratory volume and capacities and mark the correct answer i. Inspiratory capacity (IC) = Tidal Volume + Residual Volume ii. Vital Capacity (VC) = Tidal Volume (TV) + Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) + Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV). iii. Residual Volume (RV) = Vital Capacity (VC) – Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) iv. Tidal Volume (TV) = Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Options: a. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct b. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct c. (i) Correct, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct d. (i) Correct, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Correct, (iv) Incorrect 14. The oxygen - haemoglobin dissociation curve will show a right shift in case of a. High pCO2 b. High pO2 c. Low pCO2 d. Less H+ concentration 15. Match the following and mark the correct options Animal Respiratory Organ A. Earthworm i. Moist cuticle B. Aquatic Arthropods ii. Gills C. Fishes iii. Lungs D. Birds/Reptiles iv. Trachea BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES Options: a. A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii b. A-i, B-iv, C-ii, D-iii c. A-i, B-iii, C-ii, D-iv d. A-i, B-ii, C-i.v, D-iii VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Define the following terms? a. Tidal volume b. Residual volume c. Asthma 2. A fluid filled double membranous layer surrounds the lungs. Name it and mention its important function. 3. Name the primary site of exchange of gases in our body? 4. Cigarette smoking causes emphysema. Give reason. 5. What is the amount of Osupplied to tissues through every 100 ml. of2 oxygenated blood under normal physiological conditions? 6. A major percentage (97%) of O2 is transported by RBCs in the blood. How does the remaining percentage (3%) of O transported?27. Arrange the following terms based on their volumes in an ascending order a. Tidal Volume (TV) b. Residual Volume (RV) c. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) d. Expiratory Capacity (EC) 8. Complete the missing terms a. Inspiratory Capacity (IC) = _____ +IRV b. ___________________ = TV + ERV c. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) = ERV + ____ 9. Name the organs of respiration in the following organisms: a. Flatworm - _________________________________________ b. Birds - _____________________________________________ c. Frog- ______________________________________________ d. Cockroach - ________________________________________ BIOLOGY, EXEMPLAR PROBLEMS 10. Name the important parts involved in creating a pressure gradient between lungs and the atmosphere during normal respiration. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. State the different modes of CO2 transport in blood. 2. Compared to O, diffusion rate of CO through the diffusion membrane2 2per unit difference in partial pressure is much higher. Explain. 3. For completion of respiration process, write the given steps in sequential manner a. Diffusion of gases (O2 and CO2) across alveolar membrane. b. Transport of gases by blood. c. Utilisation of O2 by the cells for catabolic reactions and resultant release of CO2. d. Pulmonary ventilation by which atmospheric air is drawn in and CO2 rich alveolar air is released out. e. Diffusion of O and CO between blood and tissues.224. Differentiate between a. Inspiratory and expiratory reserve volume b. Vital capacity and total lung capacity c. Emphysema and occupational respiratory disorder LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 1. Explain the transport of O and CO between alveoli and tissue with22diagram. 2. Explain the mechanism of breathing with neat labelled sketches. 3. Explain the role of neural system in regulation of respiration.