Chapter •Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. – DEDEKIND • 9.1 Introduction In mathematics, the word, “sequence” is used in much the same way as it is in ordinary English. When we say that a collection of objects is listed in a sequence, we usually mean that the collection is ordered in such a way that it has an identified first member, second member, third member and so on. For example, population of human beings or bacteria at different times form a sequence. The amount of money deposited in a bank, over a number of years form a sequence. Depreciated values of certain commodity occur in a sequence. Sequences have important applications in several spheres of human activities. Sequences, following specific patterns are called progressions. In previous class, we have studied about arithmetic progression (A.P). In this Chapter, besides discussing more about A.P.; arithmetic mean, geometric mean, relationship between A.M. and G.M., special series in forms of sum to n terms of consecutive natural numbers, sum to n terms of squares of natural numbers and sum to n terms of cubes of natural numbers will also be studied. 9.2 Sequences Let us consider the following examples: Assume that there is a generation gap of 30 years, we are asked to find the number of ancestors, i.e., parents, grandparents, great grandparents, etc. that a person might have over 300 years. 300 Here, the total number of generations = =10 30 The number of person’s ancestors for the first, second, third, …, tenth generations are 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, …, 1024. These numbers form what we call a sequence. Consider the successive quotients that we obtain in the division of 10 by 3 at different steps of division. In this process we get 3,3.3,3.33,3.333, ... and so on. These quotients also form a sequence. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. We denote the terms of a sequence by a, a, a, …, a, …, etc., the 123nsubscripts denote the position of the term. The n th term is the number at the n th position of the sequence and is denoted by an.The nth term is also called the generalterm of the sequence. Thus, the terms of the sequence of person’s ancestors mentioned above are: a = 2, a = 4, a = 8, …, a = 1024.12310Similarly, in the example of successive quotients a 1 = 3, a 2 = 3.3, a 3 = 3.33, …, a 6 = 3.33333, etc. A sequence containing finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. For example, sequence of ancestors is a finite sequence since it contains 10 terms (a fixed number). A sequence is called infinite, if it is not a finite sequence. For example, the sequence of successive quotients mentioned above is an infinite sequence, infinite in the sense that it never ends. Often, it is possible to express the rule, which yields the various terms of a sequence in terms of algebraic formula. Consider for instance, the sequence of even natural numbers 2, 4, 6, … Here a = 2 = 2 × 1 a = 4 = 2 × 2 12a = 6 = 2 × 3 a = 8 = 2 × 4 34.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... a = 46 = 2 × 23, a = 48 = 2 × 24, and so on. 2324In fact, we see that the nth term of this sequence can be written as an = 2n, wheren is a natural number. Similarly, in the sequence of odd natural numbers 1,3,5, …, the n th term is given by the formula, an = 2n – 1, where n is a natural number. In some cases, an arrangement of numbers such as 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,.. has no visible pattern, but the sequence is generated by the recurrence relation given by a = a = 1 12a = a + a 312 an = an – 2 + a , n > 2 n – 1 This sequence is called Fibonacci sequence. In the sequence of primes 2,3,5,7,…, we find that there is no formula for the n th prime. Such sequence can only be described by verbal description. In every sequence, we should not expect that its terms will necessarily be given by a specific formula. However, we expect a theoretical scheme or a rule for generating the terms a1, a2, a3,…,an,… in succession. In view of the above, a sequence can be regarded as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subset of it of the type {1, 2, 3...k}. Sometimes, we use the functional notation a(n) for a . n 9.3 Series Let a1, a2, a3,…,an, be a given sequence. Then, the expression a + a + a +,…+ a + ... 12 3n is called the series associated with the given sequence .The series is finite or infinite according as the given sequence is finite or infinite. Series are often represented in compact form, called sigma notation, using the Greek letter ∑ (sigma) as means of indicating the summation involved. Thus, the series a+ a + a+ ... + a is abbreviated 1 23 nas a∑ nk . k =1 Remark When the series is used, it refers to the indicated sum not to the sum itself. For example, 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 is a finite series with four terms. When we use the phrase “sum of a series,” we will mean the number that results from adding the terms, the sum of the series is 16. We now consider some examples. Example 1 Write the first three terms in each of the following sequences defined by the following: n − 3 (i) an = 2n + 5, (ii) an = . 4 Solution (i) Here an = 2n + 5 Substitutingn = 1, 2, 3, we get a 1 =2(1) + 5 = 7, a 2 = 9, a 3 = 11 Therefore, the required terms are 7, 9 and 11. n − 31 − 31 1 (ii) Here a = . Thus, a = =− ,a =− ,a = 0 n 1 23 4 424 11Hence, the first three terms are and 0. – ,–24 Example 2 What is the 20th term of the sequence defined by a = (n – 1) (2 – n) (3 + n) ?nSolution Putting n = 20 , we obtain a20 = (20 – 1) (2 – 20) (3 + 20) = 19 × (– 18) × (23) = – 7866. Example 3 Let the sequence a be defined as follows: na = 1, a = a + 2 for n ≥ 2. 1nn – 1Find first five terms and write corresponding series. Solution We have a = 1, a = a + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3, a = a + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5,12132a4 = a3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7, a5 = a4 + 2 = 7 + 2 = 9. Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are 1,3,5,7 and 9. The corresponding series is 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 +... EXERCISE 9.1 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 1 to 6 whose nth terms are: n 1. a = n (n + 2) 2. a= 3. a= 2n nn n+1 n 2n − 3 n 2 +5 4. an = 5. an = (–1)n–1 5n+1 6. an =n . 64 Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences in Exercises 7 to 10 whose n th terms are: 2 n ; a7. a = 4n – 3; a, a8. a= 2n 7 n 17 24 n ( –2) nn – 1 39. a = (–1)n n ; a10. an = ; a20 . n9 n + 3 Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 11 to 13 and obtain the corresponding series: a n−1 11. a = 3, a = 3a + 2 for all n > 1 12. a = – 1, a= , n ≥ 2 1nn – 1 1n n 13. a = a= 2, a = a –1, n >2 1 2 nn – 1 14. The Fibonacci sequence is defined by 1 = a1 = a2 and a = an – 1 + a , n > 2. nn – 2 a n+1 Find , for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5a n 9.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) Let us recall some formulae and properties studied earlier. A sequence a, a, a ,…, a,… is called arithmetic sequence or arithmetic1 23n progression if a = a + d, n ∈ N, where a is called the first term and the constant n + 1n 1term d is called the common difference of the A.P. Let us consider an A.P. (in its standard form) with first term a and common difference d, i.e., a, a + d, a + 2d, ... Then the n th term (general term) of the A.P. is a = a + (n – 1) d. nWe can verify the following simple properties of an A.P. : (i) If a constant is added to each term of an A.P., the resulting sequence is also an A.P. (ii) If a constant is subtracted from each term of an A.P., the resulting sequence is also an A.P. (iii) If each term of an A.P. is multiplied by a constant, then the resulting sequence is also an A.P. (iv) If each term of an A.P. is divided by a non-zero constant then the resulting sequence is also an A.P. Here, we shall use the following notations for an arithmetic progression: a = the first term, l = the last term, d = common difference, n = the number of terms. S = the sum to n terms of A.P. n Let a, a + d, a + 2d, …, a + (n – 1) d be an A.P. Then l = a + (n – 1) d n S =[2a + (n −1) d]n 2 n We can also write, S n =[a + l]2 Let us consider some examples. Example 4 In an A.P. if mth term is n and the nth term is m, where m ≠ n, find the pth term. Solution We have am = a + (m – 1) d = n, ... (1) and a = a + (n – 1) d = m ... (2)nSolving (1) and (2), we get (m – n) d = n – m, or d = – 1, ... (3) and a = n + m – 1 ... (4) Therefore ap = a + (p – 1)d = n + m – 1 + ( p – 1) (–1) = n + m – p Hence, the pth term is n + m – p. 1 Example 5 If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is nP+ ( –1)Q , where P and Q nn 2 are constants, find the common difference. Solution Let a1, a2, … an be the given A.P. Then 1 S = a + a + a +...+ a + a = nP + n (n – 1) Qn123n–1n2 Therefore S = a = P, S = a + a = 2P + Q 11212So that a 2 = S2 – S1 = P + Q Hence, the common difference is given by d = a 2 – a 1 = (P + Q) – P = Q. Example 6 The sum of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio (3n + 8) : (7n + 15). Find the ratio of their 12th terms. Solution Let a 1, a 2 and d 1, d 2 be the first terms and common difference of the first and second arithmetic progression, respectively. According to the given condition, we have Sum to n termsof firstA.P. 3n +8 = Sum to ntermsof secondA.P. 7n +15 n [2a1 +(n −1)d 1] 3n +82 = or n 7n +15 [2a +(n −1)d ]22 2 2a + (n −1) d 3n+ 8 11 = or ... (1)2a 2 + (n −1) d 27n +15 12 th termof firstA.P. a1 +11 d1 Now th = 12 termofsecondA.P a2 +11 d2 2a1 +22 d13× 23 + 8 = [By putting n = 23 in (1)]2a2 +22 d27 ×23 +15 a1 +11 d1 12 th term of first A.P. 7 ==Therefore th a2 +11 d2 12 term of second A.P. 16 Hence, the required ratio is 7 : 16. Example 7 The income of a person is Rs. 3,00,000, in the first year and he receives an increase of Rs.10,000 to his income per year for the next 19 years. Find the total amount, he received in 20 years. Solution Here, we have an A.P. with a = 3,00,000, d = 10,000, and n = 20. Using the sum formula, we get, 20 S20 = [600000 +19 ×10000] = 10 (790000) = 79,00,000.2 Hence, the person received Rs. 79,00,000 as the total amount at the end of 20 years. 9.4.1 Arithmetic mean Given two numbers a and b. We can insert a number A between them so that a, A, b is an A.P. Such a number A is called the arithmetic mean (A.M.) of the numbers a and b. Note that, in this case, we have a + b A – a = b – A, i.e., A = 2 We may also interpret the A.M. between two numbers a and b as their a +b average . For example, the A.M. of two numbers 4 and 16 is 10. We have, thus constructed an A.P. 4, 10, 16 by inserting a number 10 between 4 and 16. The natural question now arises : Can we insert two or more numbers between given two numbers so that the resulting sequence comes out to be an A.P. ? Observe that two numbers 8 and 12 can be inserted between 4 and 16 so that the resulting sequence 4, 8, 12, 16 becomes an A.P. More generally, given any two numbers a and b, we can insert as many numbers as we like between them such that the resulting sequence is an A.P. Let A , A, A, …, A be n numbers between a and b such that a, A, A, A, …,123n 123A, b is an A.P. n Here, b is the (n + 2) th term, i.e., b = a + [(n + 2) – 1]d = a + (n + 1) d. b − a This gives d = . n +1 Thus, n numbers between a and b are as follows: b − a A = a + d = a +1n +1 2( b− a) A = a + 2d = a + 2 n +1 3(b − a) A = a + 3d = a +3n+1 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ( − a)nb A = a + nd = a + . nn +1 Example 8 Insert 6 numbers between 3 and 24 such that the resulting sequence is an A.P. Solution Let A, A, A, A, A and Abe six numbers between 3 and 24 such that123456 3, A, A, A, A, A, A,24 are in A.P. Here, a = 3, b = 24, n = 8.123456Therefore, 24 = 3 + (8 –1) d, so that d = 3. Thus A1 = a + d = 3 + 3 = 6; A2 = a + 2d = 3 + 2 × 3 = 9; A3 = a + 3d = 3 + 3 × 3 = 12; A4 = a + 4d = 3 + 4 × 3 = 15; A5 = a +5d = 3 + 5 × 3 = 18; A6 = a + 6d = 3 + 6 × 3 = 21. Hence, six numbers between 3 and 24 are 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. EXERCISE 9.2 1. Find the sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001. 2. Find the sum of all natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000, which are multiples of 5. 3. In an A.P., the first term is 2 and the sum of the first five terms is one-fourth of the next five terms. Show that 20th term is –112. 4. How many terms of the A.P. – 6, − , – 5, … are needed to give the sum –25? 2 11 1 1th th5. In an A.P., if p term is and q term is , prove that the sum of first pq qp 1terms is (pq +1), where p ≠ q. 2 6. If the sum of a certain number of terms of the A.P. 25, 22, 19, … is 116. Find the last term. 7. Find the sum to n terms of the A.P., whose kth term is 5k + 1. 8. If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is (pn + qn 2), where p and q are constants, find the common difference. 9. The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio 5n + 4 : 9n + 6. Find the ratio of their 18th terms. 10. If the sum of first p terms of an A.P. is equal to the sum of the first q terms, then find the sum of the first (p + q) terms. 11. Sum of the first p, q and r terms of an A.P. are a, b and c, respectively. ab c (q −r)+ (r − p) + ( p − q) = 0Prove that pq r 12. The ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an A.P. is m 2 : n 2. Show that the ratio of m th and n th term is (2m – 1) : (2n – 1). 13. If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is 3n2 + 5n and its mth term is 164, find the value of m. 14. Insert five numbers between 8 and 26 such that the resulting sequence is an A.P. 15. If is the A.M. between a and b, then find the value of n. an + bn n−1 n−1 a +b 16. Between 1 and 31, m numbers have been inserted in such a way that the resulting sequence is an A. P. and the ratio of 7th and (m – 1)th numbers is 5 : 9. Find the value of m. 17. A man starts repaying a loan as first instalment of Rs. 100. If he increases the instalment by Rs 5 every month, what amount he will pay in the 30th instalment? 18. The difference between any two consecutive interior angles of a polygon is 5°. If the smallest angle is 120° , find the number of the sides of the polygon. 9.5 Geometric Progression (G. P.) Let us consider the following sequences: 1 –11 –1 , ,,(i) 2,4,8,16,..., (ii) (iii) .01,.0001,.000001,... 9 27 81 243 ...In each of these sequences, how their terms progress? We note that each term, except the first progresses in a definite order. In (i), we have and so on. 1 a2 –1 a3 –1 a4 –1 In (ii), we observe, a1 = , = , = , = and so on. 9 a13 a23 a33 Similarly, state how do the terms in (iii) progress? It is observed that in each case, aaa2 34 a1 = 2, = 2, = 2, =2every term except the first term bears a constant ratio to the term immediately preceding aa a1 23 1 it. In (i), this constant ratio is 2; in (ii), it is – and in (iii), the constant ratio is 0.01. 3 Such sequences are called geometric sequence or geometric progression abbreviated as G.P. A sequence a , a , a , …, a , … is called geometric progression, if each term is123n ak + 1 non-zero and = r (constant), for k ≥ 1. ak By letting a1 = a, we obtain a geometric progression, a, ar, ar 2, ar 3,…., where a is called the first term and r is called the common ratio of the G.P. Common ratio in 1 geometric progression (i), (ii) and (iii) above are 2, – and 0.01, respectively. 3 As in case of arithmetic progression, the problem of finding the n th term or sum of n terms of a geometric progression containing a large number of terms would be difficult without the use of the formulae which we shall develop in the next Section. We shall use the following notations with these formulae: a = the first term, r = the common ratio, l = the last term, n = the numbers of terms, S = the sum of first n terms. n9.5.1 General term of a G.P. Let us consider a G.P. with first non-zero term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’. Write a few terms of it. The second term is obtained by multiplying a by r, thus a2= ar. Similarly, third term is obtained by multiplying a2 by r. Thus, a3 = a2r = ar 2, and so on. We write below these and few more terms. 1star3–1term = a 1 = a = ar1–1, 2nd term = a 2 = ar = ar2–1, 3rd term = a 3 = ar2 = ar5–14th term = a 4 = ar3 = ar4–1, 5th term = a 5 = ar4 = Do you see a pattern? What will be 16th term? 16–115 a= ar = ar16 Therefore, the pattern suggests that the n th term of a G.P. is given by n−1 a = ar . n Thus, a, G.P. can be written as a, ar, ar2, ar3, … arn – 1; a, ar, ar2,...,arn – 1... ;according as G.P. is finite or infinite, respectively. 2n–12n–1The series a + ar + ar + ... + ar or a + ar + ar + ... + ar +...are called finite or infinite geometric series, respectively. 9.5.2. Sum to n terms of a G .P. Let the first term of a G.P. be a and the common ratio be r. Let us denote by Sn the sum to first n terms of G.P. Then S n = a + ar + ar 2 +...+ ar n–1 ... (1) Case 1 If r = 1, we have S= a + a + a + ... + a (n terms) = nan Case 2 If r ≠ 1, multiplying (1) by r, we have rS n = ar + ar2 + ar3 + ... + arn ... (2) Subtracting (2) from (1), we get (1 – r) Sn = a – arn = a(1 – rn) a(1 −rn ) a( rn −1) =This gives S n or S = 1− rn r −1 Example 9 Find the 10th and nth terms of the G.P. 5, 25,125,… . Solution Here a = 5 and r = 5. Thus, a = 5(5)10–1 = 5(5)9 = 510 10and an = arn –1 = 5(5)n–1 = 5n . Example10 Which term of the G.P., 2,8,32, ... up to n terms is 131072? Solution Let 131072 be the n th term of the given G.P. Here a = 2 and r = 4. Therefore 131072 = an = 2(4)n – 1 or 65536 = 4n – 1 This gives 48 = 4n – 1. So that n – 1 = 8, i.e., n = 9. Hence, 131072 is the 9th term of the G.P. Example11 In a G.P., the 3rd term is 24 and the 6th term is 192.Find the 10th term. Solution Here, a3 = ar 2 = 24 ... (1) and a6 = ar 5 = 192 ... (2) Dividing (2) by (1), we get r = 2. Substituting r = 2 in (1), we get a = 6. Hence a10 = 6 (2)9 = 3072. Example12 Find the sum of first n terms and the sum of first 5 terms of the geometric 24 1+++... series 39 2 Solution Here a = 1 and r = . Therefore 3 ⎡⎤⎛ 2 ⎞n ⎢1 − ⎥⎜⎟ n n ⎡⎤3 ⎛ 2 ⎞a (1 − r ) ⎣⎢ ⎝⎠⎥⎦ 31 ⎥⎢ −S = = = ⎜⎟ n1 − r 1−2 ⎢⎣ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥⎦ 3 ⎡⎤ 211 211 ⎛ 2 ⎞5 In particular, S = 3 ⎢1− ⎥ = 3× = .5 ⎜⎟ 243 81 ⎢⎝ 3 ⎠⎥⎣⎦ 33 Example 13 How many terms of the G.P. 3,, ,... are needed to give the24 3069 ? sum 512 1 3069 S =Solution Let n be the number of terms needed. Given that a = 3, r = and n 2 512 a (1 – r n )Since S = n 1 − r 1 3(1 − )3069 ⎛ 1 ⎞Therefore = 2n = 61 − 1 ⎜ n ⎟ 512 ⎝ 2 ⎠1 − 2 3069 1 or =2n 1− 3072 1 3069 3 1 or =1−== 2n3072 3072 1024 or 2n = 1024 = 210, which gives n = 10. 13 Example 14 The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is and their product is – 1.12Find the common ratio and the terms. a Solution Let , a, ar be the first three terms of the G.P. Then r a 13 + ar + a = ... (1) r 12 ⎛ a ⎞ ... (2)and ⎜ ()( ) = – 1a ar ⎟⎝ r ⎠From (2), we get a 3 = – 1, i.e., a = – 1 (considering only real roots) Substituting a = –1 in (1), we have 1 13 ––1–r =or 12r 2 + 25r + 12 = 0. r 12 34 This is a quadratic in r, solving, we get r = – or – . 43 43 –3 34 –4 Thus, the three terms of G.P. are : , –1, for r = and , – 1, for r =, 34443 3 Example15 Find the sum of the sequence 7, 77, 777, 7777, ... to n terms. Solution This is not a G.P., however, we can relate it to a G.P. by writing the terms as S = 7 + 77 + 777 + 7777 + ... to n termsn7 = [9 +99 + 999 +9999 + ... to nterm] 9 7 2 34 = [(10 −1) + (10 −1) + (10 −1) +(10 −1) + ...n terms] 9 7 23 = [(10 +10 +10 +...n terms) – (1+1+1+... n terms)] 9 nn7 ⎡10(10 −1) ⎤ 7 ⎡10 (10 −1) ⎤ = − n =− n .⎢⎥⎢ ⎥ 9 10 −1 99⎣⎦⎣ ⎦Example 16 A person has 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great grandparents, and so on. Find the number of his ancestors during the ten generations preceding his own. Solution Here a = 2, r = 2 and n = 10 a (rn −1) Using the sum formula S n = r −1 We have S10 = 2(210 – 1) = 2046 Hence, the number of ancestors preceding the person is 2046. 9.5.3 Geometric Mean (G.M.) The geometric mean of two positive numbers a and b is the number ab . Therefore, the geometric mean of 2 and 8 is 4. We observe that the three numbers 2,4,8 are consecutive terms of a G.P. This leads to a generalisation of the concept of geometric means of two numbers. Given any two positive numbers a and b, we can insert as many numbers as we like between them to make the resulting sequence in a G.P. Let G1, G2,…, G n be n numbers between positive numbers a and b such that a,G,G,G,…,G ,b is a G.P. Thus, b being the (n + 2)th term,we have123n 1 ⎛ b ⎞n + 1. n + 1b = ar , or r = ⎜⎟⎝ a ⎠ 1 ⎛ b ⎞n+12 3 Hence G =ar = a , bn+1 n+11⎜⎟ 2 ⎛⎞ 3 ⎛ b ⎞ a G = ar =a ,G =ar =a ,⎝⎠ 2 ⎜⎟ 3⎜⎟⎝ a ⎠⎝ a ⎠ n n+1⎛ b ⎞ G = ar = a nn ⎜⎟⎝ a ⎠ Example17 Insert three numbers between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequence is a G.P. Solution Let G1, G2,G3 be three numbers between 1 and 256 such that 1, G,G,G ,256 is a G.P. 123Therefore 256 = r 4 giving r = ± 4 (Taking real roots only) For r = 4, we have G= ar = 4, G = ar 2 = 16, G = ar 3 = 64 1 23Similarly, for r = – 4, numbers are – 4,16 and – 64. Hence, we can insert 4, 16, 64 between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequences are in G.P. 9.6 Relationship Between A.M. and G.M. Let A and G be A.M. and G.M. of two given positive real numbers a andb, respectively. Then a + b A= and G = 2 Thus, we have a +b a +b −2 ab A – G = −ab = 22 ( a − b ) 2 = ≥ 0 ... (1)2 From (1), we obtain the relationship A ≥ G. Example 18 If A.M. and G.M. of two positive numbers a and b are 10 and 8, respectively, find the numbers. a +b Solution Given that A.M. ==10 ... (1)2 and G.M. = ab =8 ... (2) From (1) and (2), we get a + b = 20 ... (3)ab = 64 ... (4) Putting the value of a and b from (3), (4) in the identity (a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab, we get (a – b)2 = 400 – 256 = 144 or a – b = ± 12 ... (5) Solving (3) and (5), we obtain a = 4, b = 16 or a = 16, b = 4 Thus, the numbers a and b are 4, 16 or 16, 4 respectively. EXERCISE 9.3 55 5 1. Find the 20th and n th terms of the G.P. ,, , ... 24 8 2. Find the 12th term of a G.P. whose 8th term is 192 and the common ratio is 2. 3. The 5th, 8th and 11th terms of a G.P. are p, q and s, respectively. Show that q 2 = ps. 4. The 4th term of a G.P. is square of its second term, and the first term is – 3. Determine its 7th term. 5. Which term of the following sequences: (a) 22 , 24 , ,... is128? (b) 3 33 ,, 3,... is729 ? 111 1 (c) , , ,... is ? 3 9 27 19683 27 6. For what values of x, the numbers – ,x,– are in G.P.? 72 Find the sum to indicated number of terms in each of the geometric progressions in Exercises 7 to 10: 7. 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, ... 20 terms. 8. 7, 21 , 3 7, ... n terms. 9. 1, – a, a 2, – a 3, ... n terms (if a ≠ – 1). 10. x3, x5, x7, ... n terms (if x ≠ ± 1). 11 k 11. Evaluate ∑ (2 + 3).k =1 39 12. The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is and their product is 1. Find the 10common ratio and the terms. 13. How many terms of G.P. 3, 32, 33, … are needed to give the sum 120? 14. The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is 16 and the sum of the next three terms is 128. Determine the first term, the common ratio and the sum to n terms of the G.P. 15. Given a G.P. with a = 729 and 7th term 64, determine S. 7 16. Find a G.P. for which sum of the first two terms is – 4 and the fifth term is 4 times the third term. 17. If the 4th, 10th and 16th terms of a G.P. are x, y and z, respectively. Prove that x, y, z are in G.P. 18. Find the sum to n terms of the sequence, 8, 88, 888, 8888… . 19. Find the sum of the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences 2, 4, 8, 1 16, 32 and 128, 32, 8, 2, . 2 20. Show that the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences a, ar, ar 2 , n – 1…ar and A, AR, AR2, … ARn – 1 form a G.P, and find the common ratio. 21. Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which the third term is greater than the first term by 9, and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18. ththth22. If the p , q and r terms of a G.P. are a, b and c, respectively. Prove that q – r br – pP – q = 1.ac23. If the first and the n th term of a G.P. are a and b, respectively, and if P is the product of n terms, prove that P2 = (ab)n. 24. Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G.P. to the sum of terms from (n + 1)th to (2n)th term is 1 n . r 25. If a, b, c and d are in G.P. show that (a 2 + b2 + c 2) (b2 + c 2 + d2) = (ab + bc + cd)2 . 26. Insert two numbers between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G.P. n+1 n+1a + b 27. Find the value of n so that may be the geometric mean between an + bn a and b. 28. The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric mean, show that numbers are in the ratio (3 +2 2:3 − 22 ) .)( 29. If A and G be A.M. and G.M., respectively between two positive numbers, prove that the numbers are A ± ( A +G )( A−G ) . 30. The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. If there were 30 bacteria present in the culture originally, how many bacteria will be present at the end of 2nd hour, 4th hour and nth hour ? 31. What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual interest rate of 10% compounded annually? 32. If A.M. and G.M. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5, respectively, then obtain the quadratic equation. 9.7 Sum to n Terms of Special Series We shall now find the sum of first n terms of some special series, namely; (i) 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n (sum of first n natural numbers) (ii) 12 + 22 + 32 +… + n 2(sum of squares of the first n natural numbers) (iii) 13 + 23 + 33 +… + n 3(sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers). Let us take them one by one. n (n +1) (i) S n =1 + 2 + 3 + … + n, then S n = (See Section 9.4)(ii) Here S n = 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2 2 We consider the identity k3 – (k – 1)3 = 3k2 – 3k + 1 Putting k = 1, 2…, n successively, we obtain 13 – 03 = 3 (1)2 – 3 (1) + 1 23 – 13 = 3 (2)2 – 3 (2) + 1 33 – 23 = 3(3)2 – 3 (3) + 1 ....................................... ....................................... ...................................... n3 – (n – 1)3 = 3 (n)2 – 3 (n) + 1 Adding both sides, we get n 3 – 03 = 3 (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n 2) – 3 (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n) + n ∑ n ∑ n n 3 = 3 k2 – 3 k + n k = 1 k = 1 n n (n +1) By (i), we know that k =1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n =∑ 2k =1 n 21 33nn +1) ⎤ 13 2⎡ ( Hence S = ∑k = ⎢n +− n⎥ = (2 n + 3n +n) n k =13 ⎣ 2 ⎦ 6 n (n +1)(2 n+1) = 6 (iii) Here S n = 13 + 23 + ...+n 3 We consider the identity, (k + 1)4 – k4 = 4k3 + 6k2+ 4k + 1 Putting k = 1, 2, 3… n, we get 24 – 14 = 4(1)3 + 6(1)2 + 4(1) + 1 34 – 24 = 4(2)3 + 6(2)2 + 4(2) + 1 44 – 34 = 4(3)3 + 6(3)2 + 4(3) + 1 .................................................. .................................................. .................................................. (n – 1)4 – (n – 2)4 = 4(n – 2)3 + 6(n – 2)2 + 4(n – 2) + 1 n 4 – (n – 1)4 = 4(n – 1)3 + 6(n – 1)2 + 4(n – 1) + 1 (n + 1)4 – n 4 = 4n 3 + 6n 2+ 4n + 1 Adding both sides, we get (n + 1)4 – 14 = 4(13 + 23 + 33 +...+ n3) + 6(12 + 22 + 32 + ...+ n2) + 4(1 + 2 + 3 +...+ n) + n nn n = 4 ∑ k 3 + 6∑ k 2 + 4 ∑ k + n ... k = 1 k = 1 k = 1 (1) From parts (i) and (ii), we know that nn (n + 1) n 2 n (n + 1) (2 n + 1) k = and k =∑∑ k 2= 1 k = 16 Putting these values in equation (1), we obtain n 34 326n (n +1) (2 n +1) 4n (n + 1) 4 k = n + 4n + 6n + 4n– ––n∑62 or 4S= n 4 + 4n 3 + 6n 2 + 4n – n (2n 2 + 3n + 1) – 2n (n + 1) – n k = 1 n = n4 + 2n3 + n2 = n2(n + 1)2. n 2(n +1) 2 [n (n + 1) ] 2 Hence, S n = = 44 Example 19 Find the sum to n terms of the series: 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + 41… Solution Let us write S = 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + ... + a + a n n–1n or S = 5 + 11 + 19 + ... + a + a + a n n–2n–1n On subtraction, we get 0 = 5 + [6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + ...(n – 1) terms] – a n (n– 1)[12 +(n − 2) ×2] or a =5 + n 2 =5 + (n – 1) (n + 4) = n 2 + 3n + 1 nn nn Hence S = ∑ ak = ∑ (k2 + 3k +1) = ∑ k2 + 3∑ k + n n k =1 k =1 k =11 nn + 4) ( +1)(2 n +1) 3( ( + 2)( nnn nn + 1) = = ++ n . 362 Example 20 Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n (n+3). Solution Given that an = n (n + 3) = n 2 + 3n Thus, the sum to n terms is given by nn n S =a = k2 +3 k∑ k ∑∑ nk =1 k =1 k =1 n (n +1) (2 n +1) 3n (n +1) ( + n +5) nn 1)( = += . 6 23 EXERCISE 9.4 Find the sum to n terms of each of the series in Exercises 1 to 7. 1. 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 +... 2. 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + ... 111 +++3. 3 × 12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + ... 4. ...1×22×33×4 525. + 62 + 72 + ... + 202 6. 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + ... 7. 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + ... Find the sum to n terms of the series in Exercises 8 to 10 whose n th terms is given by 8. n (n+1) (n+4). 9. n 2 + 2n 10. (2 n– 1) 2 Miscellaneous Examples th thththExample21 If p , q , r and s terms of an A.P. are in G.P, then show that (p – q), (q – r), (r – s) are also in G.P. Solution Here ap = a + (p –1) d ... (1) aq = a + (q –1) d ... (2) ar = a + (r –1) d ... (3) a = a + (s –1) d ... (4)sGiven that a , a , a and a are in G.P pqrs ., aa −aq −qa qrrSo r ... (5) == = (why ?)a aa −ap −qpq pq aaa − ar − sSimilarly rs rs ... (6) == = (why ?)aaa −aq − rq r qr Hence, by (5) and (6) q– r r– s , i.e., p – q, q – r and r – s are in G.P. = p–q q–r 111 Example 22 If a, b, c are in G.P. and x = by z , prove that x, y, z are in A.P. a = c 111 ySolution Let ax= b = cz = k Then a = kx , b = ky and c = kz. ... (1) Since a, b, c are in G.P., therefore, b2 = ac ... (2) Using (1) in (2), we get k2y= kx + z, which gives 2y = x + z. Hence, x, y and z are in A.P. Example 23 If a, b, c, d and p are different real numbers such that (a 2 + b2 + c 2)p 2 – 2(ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c 2 + d2) ≤ 0, then show that a, b, c and d are in G.P. Solution Given that (a2 + b2 + c2) p2 – 2 (ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0 ... (1) But L.H.S. 22222= (ap – 2abp + b2) + (b2 p – 2bcp + c 2) + (cp – 2cdp + d2), which gives (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 ≥ 0 ... (2) Since the sum of squares of real numbers is non negative, therefore, from (1) and (2), we have, (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 = 0 or ap – b = 0, bp – c = 0, cp – d = 0 bcd This implies that === p abc Hence a, b, c and d are in G.P. Example 24 If p,q,r are in G.P. and the equations, px2 + 2qx + r = 0 and def dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root, then show that , , are in A.P. pq r Solution The equation px 2 + 2qx + r = 0 has roots given by −2q ± 4q 2 −4rp x = 2 p −q −qSince p ,q, r are in G.P. q2 = pr. Thus x = but is also root of pp dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 (Why ?). Therefore ⎛ −q ⎞2 ⎛ −q ⎞ d +2e + f = 0,⎜⎟ ⎜⎟ ⎝ p ⎠⎝ p ⎠ or dq2 – 2eqp + fp2 = 0 ... (1) Dividing (1) by pq2 and using q2 = pr, we get d 2e fp 2ed f −+ =0, or =+ pq pr qpr de f Hence ,, are in A.P. pq rMiscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 9 1. Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A.P. is equal to twice the m th term. 2. If the sum of three numbers in A.P., is 24 and their product is 440, find the numbers. 3. Let the sum of n, 2n, 3n terms of an A.P. be S1, S2 and S3, respectively, show that S3 = 3(S2 – S1) 4. Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7. 5. Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5. 6. Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4, yields 1 as remainder. 7. If f is a function satisfying f (x +y) = f(x) f(y) for all x, y ∈ N such that n x 120 f(1) = 3 and ∑ f () = , find the value of n. x = 1 8. The sum of some terms of G.P. is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and 2, respectively. Find the last term and the number of terms. 9. The first term of a G.P. is 1. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. Find the common ratio of G.P. 10. The sum of three numbers in G.P. is 56. If we subtract 1, 7, 21 from these numbers in that order, we obtain an arithmetic progression. Find the numbers. 11. A G.P. consists of an even number of terms. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum of terms occupying odd places, then find its common ratio. 12. The sum of the first four terms of an A.P. is 56. The sum of the last four terms is 112. If its first term is 11, then find the number of terms. 13. If == ( x ≠ 0), then show that a, b, c and d are in G.P. a + bx b + cx c + dx a − bx b − cx c − dx 14. Let S be the sum, P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G.P. Prove that P2Rn = Sn . 15. The p , q and r terms of an A.P. are a, b, c, respectively. Show that th thth(q – r )a + (r – p )b + (p – q )c = 0 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎛ 11 ⎞⎛ 11 ⎞ 16. If a ⎜ + ⎟,b ⎜ + ⎟ ,c ⎜ + ⎟ are in A.P., prove that a, b, c are in A.P. ⎝ b c ⎠⎝ ca ⎠⎝ ab ⎠17. If a, b, c, d are in G.P, prove that (an + bn ), (bn + cn ), (cn + dn ) are in G.P. 18. If a and b are the roots of x 2 – 3x + p = 0 and c, d are roots of x 2 – 12x + q = 0, where a, b, c, d form a G.P. Prove that (q + p) : (q – p) = 17:15. 19. The ratio of the A.M. and G.M. of two positive numbers a and b, is m : n. Show 2 2 22that a : b =(m + m –n ) : ( m– m–n ) . 11 1 20. If a, b, c are in A.P.; b, c, d are in G.P. and ,, are in A.P. prove that a, c, e cd e are in G.P. 21. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: (i) 5 + 55 +555 + … (ii) .6 +. 66 +. 666+… 22. Find the 20th term of the series 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + ... + n terms. 23. Find the sum of the first n terms of the series: 3+ 7 +13 +21 +31 +… 24. If S, S, Sare the sum of first n natural numbers, their squares and their123 cubes, respectively, show that 9 2 = S (1 + 8S).S23125. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms: 3 3 33 3311 + 21 + 2 + 3 ++ + ... 1 1 + 31 + 3 + 5 22 21× 2 + 2 ×3 + ... + n × (n +1) 3n + 5 26. Show that = 22 21 ×2 + 2 ×3 + ... + n × (n +1) 3n +1. 27. A farmer buys a used tractor for Rs 12000. He pays Rs 6000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalments of Rs 500 plus 12% interest on the unpaid amount. How much will the tractor cost him? 28. Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000. He pays Rs 4000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalment of Rs 1000 plus 10% interest on the unpaid amount. How much will the scooter cost him? 29. A person writes a letter to four of his friends. He asks each one of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with instruction that they move the chain similarly. Assuming that the chain is not broken and that it costs 50 paise to mail one letter. Find the amount spent on the postage when 8th set of letter is mailed. a ( rn –1) a(1– rn ) Evidence is found that Babylonians, some 4000 years ago, knew of arithmetic and geometric sequences. According to Boethius (510), arithmetic and geometric sequences were known to early Greek writers. Among the Indian mathematician, Aryabhatta (476) was the first to give the formula for the sum of squares and cubes of natural numbers in his famous work Aryabhatiyam, written around 499. He also gave the formula for finding the sum to n terms of an arithmetic sequence starting with p th term. Noted Indian mathematicians Brahmgupta and cubes. Another specific type of sequence having important applications in mathematics, called Fibonacci sequence, was discovered by Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250). Seventeenth century witnessed the classification of series into specific forms. In 1671 James Gregory used the term infinite series in connection with infinite sequence. It was only through the rigorous development of algebraic and set theoretic tools that the concepts related to sequence and series could be formulated suitably. — • —

Natural numbers are the product of human spirit. – Dedekind

### 9.1 Introduction

In mathematics, the word, “sequence” is used in much the same way as it is in ordinary English. When we say that a collection of objects is listed in a sequence, we usually mean that the collection is ordered in such a way that it has an identified first member, second member, third member and so on. For example, population of human beings or bacteria at different times form a sequence. The amount of money deposited in a bank, over a number of years form a sequence. Depreciated values of certain commodity occur in a sequence. Sequences have important applications in several spheres of human activities.

Sequences, following specific patterns are called progressions. In previous class, we have studied about arithmetic progression (A.P). In this Chapter, besides discussing more about A.P.; arithmetic mean, geometric mean, relationship between A.M. and G.M., special series in forms of sum to n terms of consecutive natural numbers, sum to n terms of squares of natural numbers and sum to n terms of cubes of natural numbers will also be studied.

### 9.2 Sequences

Let us consider the following examples:

Assume that there is a generation gap of 30 years, we are asked to find the number of ancestors, i.e., parents, grandparents, great grandparents, etc. that a person might have over 300 years.

Here, the total number of generations =

The number of person’s ancestors for the first, second, third, …, tenth generations are 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, …, 1024. These numbers form what we call a sequence.

Consider the successive quotients that we obtain in the division of 10 by 3 at different steps of division. In this process we get 3,3.3,3.33,3.333, ... and so on. These quotients also form a sequence. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. We denote the terms of a sequence by a1, a2, a3, …, an, …, etc., the subscripts denote the position of the term. The nth term is the number at the nth position of the sequence and is denoted by an. The nth term is also called the general term of the sequence.

Thus, the terms of the sequence of person’s ancestors mentioned above are:

a1 = 2, a2 = 4, a3 = 8, …, a10 = 1024.

Similarly, in the example of successive quotients

a1 = 3, a2 = 3.3, a3 = 3.33, …, a6 = 3.33333, etc.

A sequence containing finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. For example, sequence of ancestors is a finite sequence since it contains 10 terms (a fixed number).

A sequence is called infinite, if it is not a finite sequence. For example, the sequence of successive quotients mentioned above is an infinite sequence, infinite in the sense that it never ends.

Often, it is possible to express the rule, which yields the various terms of a sequence in terms of algebraic formula. Consider for instance, the sequence of even natural numbers 2, 4, 6, …

a23 = 46 = 2 × 23, a24 = 48 = 2 × 24, and so on.

In fact, we see that the nth term of this sequence can be written as an = 2n, where n is a natural number. Similarly, in the sequence of odd natural numbers 1,3,5, …, the nth term is given by the formula, an = 2n – 1, where n is a natural number.

In some cases, an arrangement of numbers such as 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,.. has no visible pattern, but the sequence is generated by the recurrence relation given by

a1 = a2 = 1

a3 = a1 + a2

an = an – 2 + an – 1, n > 2

This sequence is called Fibonacci sequence.

In the sequence of primes 2,3,5,7,…, we find that there is no formula for the nth prime. Such sequence can only be described by verbal description.

In every sequence, we should not expect that its terms will necessarily be given by a specific formula. However, we expect a theoretical scheme or a rule for generating the terms a1, a2, a3,…,an,… in succession.

In view of the above, a sequence can be regarded as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subset of it. Sometimes, we use the functional notation a(n) for an.

### 9.3 Series

Let a1, a2, a3,…,an, be a given sequence. Then, the expression

a1 + a2 + a3 +,…+ an + ...

is called the series associated with the given sequence .The series is finite or infinite according as the given sequence is finite or infinite. Series are often represented in compact form, called sigma notation, using the Greek letter (sigma) as means of indicating the summation involved. Thus, the series a1 + a2 + a3 + ... + an is abbreviated as .

Remark When the series is used, it refers to the indicated sum not to the sum itself. For example, 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 is a finite series with four terms. When we use the phrase “sum of a series,” we will mean the number that results from adding the terms, the sum of the series is 16.

We now consider some examples.

Example 1 Write the first three terms in each of the following sequences defined by the following:

(i) an = 2n + 5, (ii) an = .

Solution (i) Here an = 2n + 5

Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, we get

a1 = 2(1) + 5 = 7, a2 = 9, a3 = 11

Therefore, the required terms are 7, 9 and 11.

(ii)Here an = . Thus,

Hence, the first three terms are and 0.

Example 2 What is the 20th term of the sequence defined by an = (n – 1) (2 – n) (3 + n) ?

Solution Putting n = 20 , we obtain

a20 = (20 – 1) (2 – 20) (3 + 20)

= 19 × (– 18) × (23) = – 7866.

Example 3 Let the sequence an be defined as follows:

a1 = 1, an = an – 1 + 2 for n ≥ 2.

Find first five terms and write corresponding series.

Solution We have

a1 = 1, a2 = a1 + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3, a3 = a2 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5,

a4 = a3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7, a5 = a4 + 2 = 7 + 2 = 9.

Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are 1,3,5,7 and 9. The corresponding series is 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 +...

### EXERCISE 9.1

Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 1 to 6 whose nth terms are:

1. an = n (n + 2) 2. an = 3. an = 2n

4. an = 5. an = (–1)n–1 5n+1 6. an.

Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences in Exercises 7 to 10 whose nth terms are:

7. an = 4n – 3; a17, a24 8. an =

9. an = (–1)n – 1n3; a9 10. .

Write the first five terms of each of the sequences in Exercises 11 to 13 and obtain the corresponding series:

11. a1 = 3, an = 3an – 1 + 2 for all n > 1 12. a1 = – 1, an = , n ≥ 2

13. a1 = a2 = 2, an = an – 1–1, n > 2

14. The Fibonacci sequence is defined by

1 = a1 = a2 and an = an – 1 + an – 2, n > 2.

Find , for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

### 9.4 Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)

Let us recall some formulae and properties studied earlier.

A sequence a1, a2, a3,…, an,… is called arithmetic sequence or arithmetic progression if an + 1 = an + d, n ∈ N, where a1 is called the first term and the constant term d is called the common difference of the A.P.

Let us consider an A.P. (in its standard form) with first term a and common difference d, i.e., a, a + d, a + 2d, ...

Then the nth term (general term) of the A.P. is an = a + (n – 1) d.

We can verify the following simple properties of an A.P. :

(i) If a constant is added to each term of an A.P., the resulting sequence is also an A.P.

(ii) If a constant is subtracted from each term of an A.P., the resulting sequence is also an A.P.

(iii) If each term of an A.P. is multiplied by a constant, then the resulting sequence is also an A.P.

(iv) If each term of an A.P. is divided by a non-zero constant then the resulting sequence is also an A.P.

Here, we shall use the following notations for an arithmetic progression:

a = the first term, l = the last term, d = common difference,

n = the number of terms.

Sn= the sum to n terms of A.P.

Let a, a + d, a + 2d, …, a + (n – 1) d be an A.P. Then

l = a + (n – 1) d

We can also write,

Let us consider some examples.

Example 4 In an A.P. if mth term is n and the nth term is m, where m n, find the pth term.

Solution We have am = a + (m – 1) d = n, ... (1)

and an = a + (n – 1) d = m ... (2)

Solving (1) and (2), we get

(m – n) d = n – m, or d = – 1, ... (3)

and a = n + m – 1 ... (4)

Therefore ap= a + (p – 1)d

= n + m – 1 + ( p – 1) (–1) = n + m – p

Hence, the pth term is n + m – p.

Example 5 If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is , where P and Q are constants, find the common difference.

Solution Let a1, a2, … an be the given A.P. Then

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 +...+ an–1 + an = nP + n (n – 1) Q

Therefore S1 = a1 = P, S2 = a1 + a2 = 2P + Q

So that a2 = S2 – S1 = P + Q

Hence, the common difference is given by d = a2 – a1 = (P + Q) – P = Q.

Example 6 The sum of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio (3n + 8) : (7n + 15). Find the ratio of their 12th terms.

Solution Let a1, a2 and d1, d2 be the first terms and common difference of the first and second arithmetic progression, respectively. According to the given condition, we have

or

or ... (1)

Now

[By putting n = 23 in (1)]

Therefore

Hence, the required ratio is 7 : 16.

Example 7 The income of a person is Rs. 3,00,000, in the first year and he receives an increase of Rs.10,000 to his income per year for the next 19 years. Find the total amount, he received in 20 years.

Solution Here, we have an A.P. with a = 3,00,000, d = 10,000, and n = 20.

Using the sum formula, we get,

= 10 (790000) = 79,00,000.

Hence, the person received Rs. 79,00,000 as the total amount at the end of 20 years.

9.4.1 Arithmetic mean Given two numbers a and b. We can insert a number A between them so that a, A, b is an A.P. Such a number A is called the arithmetic mean (A.M.) of the numbers a and b. Note that, in this case, we have

A – a = b – A, i.e., A =

We may also interpret the A.M. between two numbers a and b as their average. For example, the A.M. of two numbers 4 and 16 is 10. We have, thus constructed an A.P. 4, 10, 16 by inserting a number 10 between 4 and 16. The natural question now arises : Can we insert two or more numbers between given two numbers so that the resulting sequence comes out to be an A.P. ? Observe that two numbers 8 and 12 can be inserted between 4 and 16 so that the resulting sequence 4, 8, 12, 16 becomes an A.P.

More generally, given any two numbers a and b, we can insert as many numbers as we like between them such that the resulting sequence is an A.P.

Let A1, A2, A3, …, An be n numbers between a and b such that a, A1, A2, A3, …, An, b is an A.P.

Here, b is the (n + 2) th term, i.e., b = a + [(n + 2) – 1]d = a + (n + 1) d.

This gives .

Thus, n numbers between a and b are as follows:

A1 = a + d = a +

A2 = a + 2d = a +

A3 = a + 3d = a +

..... ..... ..... .....

..... ..... ..... .....

An = a + nd = a + .

Example 8 Insert 6 numbers between 3 and 24 such that the resulting sequence is an A.P.

Solution Let A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 be six numbers between 3 and 24 such that

3, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, 24 are in A.P. Here, a = 3, b = 24, n = 8.

Therefore, 24 = 3 + (8 –1) d, so that d = 3.

Thus A1 = a + d = 3 + 3 = 6; A2 = a + 2d = 3 + 2 × 3 = 9;

A3 = a + 3d = 3 + 3 × 3 = 12; A4 = a + 4d = 3 + 4 × 3 = 15;

A5 = a + 5d = 3 + 5 × 3 = 18; A6 = a + 6d = 3 + 6 × 3 = 21.

Hence, six numbers between 3 and 24 are 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21.

### EXERCISE 9.2

1. Find the sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001.

2. Find the sum of all natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000, which are multiples of 5.

3. In an A.P., the first term is 2 and the sum of the first five terms is one-fourth of the next five terms. Show that 20th term is –112.

4. How many terms of the A.P. – 6, , – 5, … are needed to give the sum –25?

5.In an A.P., if pth term is and qth term is , prove that the sum of first pq terms is (pq +1), where p ≠ q.

6. If the sum of a certain number of terms of the A.P. 25, 22, 19, … is 116. Find the last term.

7. Find the sum to n terms of the A.P., whose kth term is 5k + 1.

8. If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is (pn + qn2), where p and q are constants, find the common difference.

9. The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio 5n + 4 : 9n + 6. Find the ratio of their 18th terms.

10. If the sum of first p terms of an A.P. is equal to the sum of the first q terms, then find the sum of the first (p + q) terms.

11. Sum of the first p, q and r terms of an A.P. are a, b and c, respectively.

Prove that

12. The ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an A.P. is m2 : n2. Show that the ratio of mth and nth term is (2m – 1) : (2n – 1).

13. If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is 3n2 + 5n and its mth term is 164, find the value of m.

14. Insert five numbers between 8 and 26 such that the resulting sequence is an A.P.

15. If is the A.M. between a and b, then find the value of n.

16. Between 1 and 31, m numbers have been inserted in such a way that the resulting sequence is an A. P. and the ratio of 7th and (m – 1)th numbers is 5 : 9. Find the value of m.

17. A man starts repaying a loan as first instalment of Rs. 100. If he increases the instalment by Rs 5 every month, what amount he will pay in the 30th instalment?

18. The difference between any two consecutive interior angles of a polygon is 5°. If the smallest angle is 120° , find the number of the sides of the polygon.

### 9.5 Geometric Progression (G. P.)

Let us consider the following sequences:

(i) 2,4,8,16,..., (ii) ... (iii)

In each of these sequences, how their terms progress? We note that each term, except the first progresses in a definite order.

In (i), we have and so on.

In (ii), we observe, and so on.

Similarly, state how do the terms in (iii) progress? It is observed that in each case, every term except the first term bears a constant ratio to the term immediately preceding it. In (i), this constant ratio is 2; in (ii), it is and in (iii), the constant ratio is 0.01. Such sequences are called geometric sequence or geometric progression abbreviated as G.P.

A sequence a1, a2, a3, …, an, … is called geometric progression, if each term is non-zero and = r (constant), for k ≥ 1.

By letting a1 = a, we obtain a geometric progression, a, ar, ar2, ar3,…., where a is called the first term and r is called the common ratio of the G.P. Common ratio in geometric progression (i), (ii) and (iii) above are 2, and 0.01, respectively.

As in case of arithmetic progression, the problem of finding the nth term or sum of n terms of a geometric progression containing a large number of terms would be difficult without the use of the formulae which we shall develop in the next Section. We shall use the following notations with these formulae:

a = the first term, r = the common ratio, l = the last term,

n = the numbers of terms,

Sn = the sum of first n terms.

9.5.1 General term of a G .P. Let us consider a G.P. with first non-zero term ‘a’ and common ratio ‘r’. Write a few terms of it. The second term is obtained by multiplying a by r, thus a2 = ar. Similarly, third term is obtained by multiplying a2 by r. Thus,

a3 = a2r = ar2, and so on.

We write below these and few more terms.

1st term = a1 = a = ar1–1, 2nd term = a2 = ar = ar2–1, 3rd term = a3 = ar2 = ar3–1

4th term = a4 = ar3 = ar4–1, 5th term = a5 = ar4 = ar5–1

Do you see a pattern? What will be 16th term?

a16 = ar16–1 = ar15

Therefore, the pattern suggests that the nth term of a G.P. is given by .

Thus, a, G.P. can be written as a, ar, ar2, ar3, … arn – 1; a, ar, ar2,...,arn – 1... ;according as G.P. is finite or infinite, respectively.

The series a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn–1 or a + ar + ar2 + ... + arn–1 +...are called finite or infinite geometric series, respectively.

9.5.2. Sum to n terms of a G .P. Let the first term of a G.P. be a and the common ratio be r. Let us denote by Sn the sum to first n terms of G.P. Then

Sn = a + ar + ar2 +...+ arn–1 ... (1)

Case 1 If r = 1, we have Sn = a + a + a + ... + a (n terms) = na

Case 2 If r ≠ 1, multiplying (1) by r, we have

rSn = ar + ar2 + ar3 + ... + arn ... (2)

Subtracting (2) from (1), we get (1 – r) Sn = a – arn = a(1 – rn)

This givesor

Example 9 Find the 10th and nth terms of the G.P. 5, 25,125,… .

Solution Here a = 5 and r = 5. Thus, a10 = 5(5)10–1 = 5(5)9 = 510

and an = arn–1 = 5(5)n–1 = 5n .

Example10 Which term of the G.P., 2,8,32, ... up to n terms is 131072?

Solution Let 131072 be the nth term of the given G.P. Here a = 2 and r = 4. Therefore 131072 = an = 2(4)n – 1 or 65536 = 4n – 1

This gives 48 = 4n – 1.

So that n – 1 = 8, i.e., n = 9. Hence, 131072 is the 9th term of the G.P.

Example11 In a G.P., the 3rd term is 24 and the 6th term is 192.Find the 10th term.

Solution Here, ... (1)

and ... (2)

Dividing (2) by (1), we get r = 2. Substituting r = 2 in (1), we get a = 6.

Hence a10 = 6 (2)9 = 3072.

Example12 Find the sum of first n terms and the sum of first 5 terms of the geometric series

Solution Here a = 1 and r = . Therefore

Sn = =

In particular, = = .

Example 13 How many terms of the G.P. ,... are needed to give the sum ?

Solution Let n be the number of terms needed. Given that a = 3, r = and

Since

Therefore

or =

or =

or 2n = 1024 = 210, which gives n = 10.

Example 14 The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is and their product is – 1. Find the common ratio and the terms.

Solution Let , a, ar be the first three terms of the G.P. Then

= ... (1)

and ... (2)

From (2), we get a3 = – 1, i.e., a = – 1 (considering only real roots)

Substituting a = –1 in (1), we have

or 12r2 + 25r + 12 = 0.

This is a quadratic in r, solving, we get .

Thus, the three terms of G.P. are :,

Example15 Find the sum of the sequence 7, 77, 777, 7777, ... to n terms.

Solution This is not a G.P., however, we can relate it to a G.P. by writing the terms as

Sn = 7 + 77 + 777 + 7777 + ... to n terms

=

=

=

= .

Example 16 A person has 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great grandparents, and so on. Find the number of his ancestors during the ten generations preceding his own.

Solution Here a = 2, r = 2 and n = 10

Using the sum formula Sn =

We have S10 = 2(210 – 1) = 2046

Hence, the number of ancestors preceding the person is 2046.

9.5.3 Geometric Mean (G .M.) The geometric mean of two positive numbers a and b is the number. Therefore, the geometric mean of 2 and 8 is 4. We observe that the three numbers 2,4,8 are consecutive terms of a G.P. This leads to a generalisation of the concept of geometric means of two numbers.

Given any two positive numbers a and b, we can insert as many numbers as we like between them to make the resulting sequence in a G.P.

Let G1, G2,…, Gn be n numbers between positive numbers a and b such that

a,G1,G2,G3,…,Gn,b is a G.P. Thus, b being the (n + 2)th term,we have

, or .

Hence , ,,

Example17 Insert three numbers between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequence is a G.P.

Solution Let G1, G2,G3 be three numbers between 1 and 256 such that 1, G1,G2,G3 ,256 is a G.P.

Therefore 256 = r4 giving r = ± 4 (Taking real roots only)

For r = 4, we have G1 = ar = 4, G2 = ar2 = 16, G3 = ar3 = 64

Similarly, for r = – 4, numbers are – 4,16 and – 64.

Hence, we can insert 4, 16, 64 between 1 and 256 so that the resulting sequences are in G.P.

### 9.6 Relationship Between A.M. and G.M.

Let A and G be A.M. and G.M. of two given positive real numbers a and b, respectively. Then

Thus, we have

A – G = =

= ... (1)

From (1), we obtain the relationship A ≥ G.

Example 18 If A.M. and G.M. of two positive numbers a and b are 10 and 8, respectively, find the numbers.

Solution Given that ... (1)

and ... (2)

From (1) and (2), we get

a + b = 20 ... (3)

ab = 64 ... (4)

Putting the value of a and b from (3), (4) in the identity (a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab, we get

(a – b)2 = 400 – 256 = 144

or a – b = ± 12 ... (5)

Solving (3) and (5), we obtain

a = 4, b = 16 or a = 16, b = 4

Thus, the numbers a and b are 4, 16 or 16, 4 respectively.

EXERCISE 9.3

1. Find the 20th and nth terms of the G.P. , ...

2. Find the 12th term of a G.P. whose 8th term is 192 and the common ratio is 2.

3. The 5th, 8th and 11th terms of a G.P. are p, q and s, respectively. Show that q2 = ps.

4. The 4th term of a G.P. is square of its second term, and the first term is – 3. Determine its 7th term.

5. Which term of the following sequences:

(a) (b)

(c) ?

6. For what values of x, the numbers are in G.P.?

Find the sum to indicated number of terms in each of the geometric progressions in Exercises 7 to 10:

7. 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, ... 20 terms.

8. , , 3, ... n terms.

9. 1, – a, a2, – a3, ... n terms (if a ≠ – 1).

10. x3, x5, x7, ... n terms (if x ≠ ± 1).

11.Evaluate .

12.The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is and their product is 1. Find the common ratio and the terms.

13. How many terms of G.P. 3, 32, 33, … are needed to give the sum 120?

14. The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is 16 and the sum of the next three terms is 128. Determine the first term, the common ratio and the sum to n terms of the G.P.

15. Given a G.P. with a = 729 and 7th term 64, determine S7.

16. Find a G.P. for which sum of the first two terms is – 4 and the fifth term is 4 times the third term.

17. If the 4th, 10th and 16th terms of a G.P. are x, y and z, respectively. Prove that x, y, z are in G.P.

18.Find the sum to n terms of the sequence, 8, 88, 888, 8888… .

19.Find the sum of the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 128, 32, 8, 2, .

20. Show that the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences a, ar, ar2, …arn – 1 and a, ar, ar2, … aRn – 1 form a G.P, and find the common ratio.

21. Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which the third term is greater than the first term by 9, and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18.

22. If the pth, qth and rth terms of a G.P. are a, b and c, respectively. Prove that

aq – r br – pcP – q = 1.

23.If the first and the nth term of a G.P. are a and b, respectively, and if P is the product of n terms, prove that P2 = (ab)n.

24.Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G.P. to the sum of terms from (n + 1)th to (2n)th term is .

25. If a, b, c and d are in G.P. show that

(a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2) = (ab + bc + cd)2 .

26. Insert two numbers between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G.P.

27.Find the value of n so that may be the geometric mean between a and b.

28.The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric mean, show that numbers are in the ratio .

29.If A and G be A.M. and G.M., respectively between two positive numbers, prove that the numbers are .

30. The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. If there were 30 bacteria present in the culture originally, how many bacteria will be present at the end of 2nd hour, 4th hour and nth hour ?

31. What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual interest rate of 10% compounded annually?

32. If A.M. and G.M. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5, respectively, then obtain the quadratic equation.

### 9.7 Sum to n Terms of Special Series

We shall now find the sum of first n terms of some special series, namely;

(i) 1 + 2 + 3 +… + n (sum of first n natural numbers)

(ii) 12 + 22 + 32 +… + n2(sum of squares of the first n natural numbers)

(iii) 13 + 23 + 33 +… + n3(sum of cubes of the first n natural numbers).

Let us take them one by one.

(i) Sn=1 + 2 + 3 + … + n, then Sn = (See Section 9.4)

(ii) Here Sn= 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2

We consider the identity k3 – (k – 1)3 = 3k2 – 3k + 1

Putting k = 1, 2…, n successively, we obtain

13 – 03 = 3 (1)2 – 3 (1) + 1

23 – 13 = 3 (2)2 – 3 (2) + 1

33 – 23 = 3(3)2 – 3 (3) + 1

.......................................

.......................................

......................................

n3 – (n – 1)3 = 3 (n)2 – 3 (n) + 1

Adding both sides, we get

n3 – 03 = 3 (12 + 22 + 32 + ... + n2) – 3 (1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n) + n

By (i), we know that

Hence Sn = =

=

(iii) Here Sn = 13 + 23 + ...+n3

We consider the identity,(k + 1)4 – k4 = 4k3 + 6k2 + 4k + 1

Putting k = 1, 2, 3… n, we get

24 – 14 = 4(1)3 + 6(1)2 + 4(1) + 1

34 – 24 = 4(2)3 + 6(2)2 + 4(2) + 1

44 – 34 = 4(3)3 + 6(3)2 + 4(3) + 1

..................................................

..................................................

..................................................

(n – 1)4 – (n – 2)4 = 4(n – 2)3 + 6(n – 2)2 + 4(n – 2) + 1

n4 – (n – 1)4 = 4(n – 1)3 + 6(n – 1)2 + 4(n – 1) + 1

(n + 1)4 – n4 = 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n + 1

Adding both sides, we get

(n + 1)4 – 14 = 4(13 + 23 + 33 +...+ n3) + 6(12 + 22 + 32 + ...+ n2) + 4(1 + 2 + 3 +...+ n) + n

... (1)

From parts (i) and (ii), we know that

Putting these values in equation (1), we obtain

or 4Sn = n4 + 4n3 + 6n2 + 4n – n (2n2 + 3n + 1) – 2n (n + 1) – n

= n4 + 2n3 + n2

= n2(n + 1)2.

Hence, Sn =

Example 19 Find the sum to n terms of the series: 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + 41…

Solution Let us write

Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + 29 + ... + an–1 + an

or Sn = 5 + 11 + 19 + ... + an–2 + an–1 + an

On subtraction, we get

0 = 5 + [6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + ...(n – 1) terms] – an

or an = 5 +

= 5 + (n – 1) (n + 4) = n2 + 3n + 1

Hence Sn =

= .

Example 20 Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n (n+3).

Solution Given that an = n (n + 3) = n2 + 3n

Thus, the sum to n terms is given by

Sn =

= .

EXERCISE 9.4

Find the sum to n terms of each of the series in Exercises 1 to 7.

1. 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 +... 2. 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + ...

3. 3 × 12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + ... 4. ...

5. 52 + 62 + 72 + ... + 202 6. 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + ...

7. 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + ...

Find the sum to n terms of the series in Exercises 8 to 10 whose nth terms is given by

8. n (n+1) (n+4). 9. n2 + 2n

10.

### Miscellaneous Examples

Example21 If pth, qth, rth and sth terms of an A.P. are in G.P, then show that

(p – q), (q – r), (r – s) are also in G.P.

Solution Here

ap = a + (p –1) d ... (1)

aq = a + (q –1) d ... (2)

ar = a + (r –1) d ... (3)

as = a + (s –1) d ... (4)

Given that ap, aq, ar and as are in G.P.,

So (why ?) ... (5)

Similarly (why ?) ... (6)

Hence, by (5) and (6)

, i.e., p – q, q – r and r – s are in G.P.

Example 22 If a, b, c are in G.P. and , prove that x, y, z are in A.P.

Solution Let = Then

a = kx , b = ky and c = kz. ... (1)

Since a, b, c are in G.P., therefore,

b2 = ac ... (2)

Using (1) in (2), we get

k2y = kx + z, which gives 2y = x + z.

Hence, x, y and z are in A.P.

Example 23 If a, b, c, d and p are different real numbers such that (a2 + b2 + c2)p2 – 2(ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0, then show that a, b, c and d are in G.P.

Solution Given that

(a2 + b2 + c2) p2 – 2 (ab + bc + cd) p + (b2 + c2 + d2) ≤ 0 ... (1)

But L.H.S.

= (a2p2 – 2abp + b2) + (b2p2 – 2bcp + c2) + (c2p2 – 2cdp + d2),

which gives (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 ≥ 0 ... (2)

Since the sum of squares of real numbers is non negative, therefore, from (1) and (2), we have, (ap – b)2 + (bp – c)2 + (cp – d)2 = 0

or ap – b = 0, bp – c = 0, cp – d = 0

This implies that

Hence a, b, c and d are in G.P.

Example 24 If p,q,r are in G.P. and the equations, px2 + 2qx + r = 0 and dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root, then show that are in A.P.

Solution The equation px2 + 2qx + r = 0 has roots given by

Since p ,q, r are in G.P. q2 = pr. Thus but is also root of

dx2 + 2ex + f = 0 (Why ?). Therefore

or dq2 – 2eqp + fp2 = 0 ... (1)

Dividing (1) by pq2 and using q2 = pr, we get

or

Hence are in A.P.

### Miscellaneous Exercise On Chapter 9

1. Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A.P. is equal to twice the mth term.

2. If the sum of three numbers in A.P., is 24 and their product is 440, find the numbers.

3. Let the sum of n, 2n, 3n terms of an A.P. be S1, S2 and S3, respectively, show that S3 = 3(S2 – S1)

4. Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7.

5. Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5.

6. Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4, yields 1 as remainder.

7. If f is a function satisfying f (x +y) = f(x) f(y) for all x, y ∈ N such that

f(1) = 3 and , find the value of n.

8. The sum of some terms of G.P. is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and 2, respectively. Find the last term and the number of terms.

9. The first term of a G.P. is 1. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. Find the common ratio of G.P.

10. The sum of three numbers in G.P. is 56. If we subtract 1, 7, 21 from these numbers in that order, we obtain an arithmetic progression. Find the numbers.

11. A G.P. consists of an even number of terms. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum of terms occupying odd places, then find its common ratio.

12. The sum of the first four terms of an A.P. is 56. The sum of the last four terms is 112. If its first term is 11, then find the number of terms.

13.If then show that a, b, c and d are in G.P.

14. Let S be the sum, P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G.P. Prove that P2Rn = Sn.

15. The pth, qth and rth terms of an A.P. are a, b, c, respectively. Show that

(q – r )a + (r – p )b + (p – q )c = 0

16. If are in A.P., prove that a, b, c are in A.P.

17. If a, b, c, d are in G.P, prove that (an + bn), (bn + cn), (cn + dn) are in G.P.

18. If a and b are the roots of x2 – 3x + p = 0 and c, d are roots of x2 – 12x + q = 0, where a, b, c, d form a G.P. Prove that (q + p) : (q – p) = 17:15.

19.The ratio of the A.M. and G.M. of two positive numbers a and b, is m : n. Show that .

20.If a, b, c are in A.P.; b, c, d are in G.P. and are in A.P. prove that a, c, e are in G.P.

21. Find the sum of the following series up to n terms:

(i) 5 + 55 +555 + … (ii) .6 +. 66 +. 666+…

22. Find the 20th term of the series 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + ... + n terms.

23. Find the sum of the first n terms of the series: 3+ 7 +13 +21 +31 +…

24.If S1, S2, S3 are the sum of first n natural numbers, their squares and their cubes, respectively, show that 9= S3 (1 + 8S1).

25.Find the sum of the following series up to n terms:

26.Show that .

27. A farmer buys a used tractor for Rs 12000. He pays Rs 6000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalments of Rs 500 plus 12% interest on the unpaid amount. How much will the tractor cost him?

28. Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000. He pays Rs 4000 cash and agrees to pay the balance in annual instalment of Rs 1000 plus 10% interest on the unpaid amount. How much will the scooter cost him?

29. A person writes a letter to four of his friends. He asks each one of them to copy the letter and mail to four different persons with instruction that they move the chain similarly. Assuming that the chain is not broken and that it costs 50 paise to mail one letter. Find the amount spent on the postage when 8th set of letter is mailed.

30. A man deposited Rs 10000 in a bank at the rate of 5% simple interest annually. Find the amount in 15th year since he deposited the amount and also calculate the total amount after 20 years.

31. A manufacturer reckons that the value of a machine, which costs him Rs. 15625, will depreciate each year by 20%. Find the estimated value at the end of 5 years.

32. 150 workers were engaged to finish a job in a certain number of days. 4 workers dropped out on second day, 4 more workers dropped out on third day and so on. It took 8 more days to finish the work. Find the number of days in which the work was completed.

### Summary

- By a sequence, we mean an arrangement of number in definite order according to some rule. Also, we define a sequence as a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers or some subsets of the type {1, 2, 3, ....k}. A sequence containing a finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. A sequence is called infinite if it is not a finite sequence.
- Let a1, a2, a3, ... be the sequence, then the sum expressed as a1 + a2 + a3 + ... is called series. A series is called finite series if it has got finite number of terms.
- An arithmetic progression (A.P.) is a sequence in which terms increase or decrease regularly by the same constant. This constant is called common difference of the A.P. Usually, we denote the first term of A.P. by a, the common difference by d and the last term by l. The general term or the nth term of the A.P. is given by an = a + (n – 1) d.

The sum Sn of the first n terms of an A.P. is given by .

- The arithmetic mean A of any two numbers a and b is given by i.e., the sequence a, A, b is in A.P.
- A sequence is said to be a geometric progression or G.P., if the ratio of any term to its preceding term is same throughout. This constant factor is called the common ratio. Usually, we denote the first term of a G.P. by a and its common ratio by r. The general or the nth term of G.P. is given by an= arn – 1. The sum Sn of the first n terms of G.P. is given by

- The geometric mean (G.M.) of any two positive numbers a and b is given by i.e., the sequence a, G, b is G.P.

### Historical Note

Evidence is found that Babylonians, some 4000 years ago, knew of arithmetic and geometric sequences. According to Boethius (510), arithmetic and geometric sequences were known to early Greek writers. Among the Indian mathematician, Aryabhatta (476) was the first to give the formula for the sum of squares and cubes of natural numbers in his famous work Aryabhatiyam, written around

499. He also gave the formula for finding the sum to n terms of an arithmetic sequence starting with pth term. Noted Indian mathematicians Brahmgupta (598), Mahavira (850) and Bhaskara (1114-1185) also considered the sum of squares and cubes. Another specific type of sequence having important applications in mathematics, called Fibonacci sequence, was discovered by Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci (1170-1250). Seventeenth century witnessed the classification of series into specific forms. In 1671 James Gregory used the term infinite series in connection with infinite sequence. It was only through the rigorous development of algebraic and set theoretic tools that the concepts related to sequence and series could be formulated suitably.