Appendix I Definitions of the SI Base Units Metre (m): The metre is the length of path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second (17th CGPM, 1983). Kilogram (kg): The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram (3rd CGPM, 1901). Second (s): The second is the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom (13th CGPM, 1967). Ampere (A): The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 10-7 Newton per metre of length (9th CGPM, 1948). Kelvin (K): The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (13th CGPM, 1967). Mole (mol): The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles (14th CGPM, 1971). Candela (cd): The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of (1/683) watt per steradian (16th CGPM, 1979). (The symbols listed here are internationally agreed and should not be changed in other languages or scripts). Appendix II Elements, their Atomic Number and Molar Mass Element Symbol Atomic Molar Element Symbol Atomic Molar Number mass/ Number mass/ (g mol–1) (g mol–1) Actinium Ac 89 227.03 Mercury Hg 80 200.59 Aluminium Al 13 26.98 Molybdenum Mo 42 95.94 Americium Am 95 (243) Neodymium Nd 60 144.24 Antimony Sb 51 121.75 Neon Ne 10 20.18 Argon Ar 18 39.95 Neptunium Np 93 (237.05) Arsenic As 33 74.92 Nickel Ni 28 58.71 Astatine At 85 210 Niobium Nb 41 92.91 Barium Ba 56 137.34 Nitrogen N 7 14.0067 Berkelium Bk 97 (247) Nobelium No 102 (259) Beryllium Be 4 9.01 Osmium Os 76 190.2 Bismuth Bi 83 208.98 Oxygen O 8 16.00 Bohrium Bh 107 (264) Palladium Pd 46 106.4 Boron B 5 10.81 Phosphorus P 15 30.97 Bromine Br 35 79.91 Platinum Pt 78 195.09 Cadmium Cd 48 112.40 Plutonium Pu 94 (244) Caesium Cs 55 132.91 Polonium Po 84 210 Calcium Ca 20 40.08 Potassium K 19 39.10 Californium Cf 98 251.08 Praseodymium Pr 59 140.91 Carbon C 6 12.01 Promethium Pm 61 (145) Cerium Ce 58 140.12 Protactinium Pa 91 231.04 Chlorine Cl 17 35.45 Radium Ra 88 (226) Chromium Cr 24 52.00 Radon Rn 86 (222) Cobalt Co 27 58.93 Rhenium Re 75 186.2 Copper Cu 29 63.54 Rhodium Rh 45 102.91 Curium Cm 96 247.07 Rubidium Rb 37 85.47 Dubnium Db 105 (263) Ruthenium Ru 44 101.07 Dysprosium Dy 66 162.50 Rutherfordium Rf 104 (261) Einsteinium Es 99 (252) Samarium Sm 62 150.35 Erbium Er 68 167.26 Scandium Sc 21 44.96 Europium Eu 63 151.96 Seaborgium Sg 106 (266) Fermium Fm 100 (257.10) Selenium Se 34 78.96 Fluorine F 9 19.00 Silicon Si 14 28.08 Francium Fr 87 (223) Silver Ag 47 107.87 Gadolinium Gd 64 157.25 Sodium Na 11 22.99 Gallium Ga 31 69.72 Strontium Sr 38 87.62 Germanium Ge 32 72.61 Sulphur S 16 32.06 Gold Au 79 196.97 Tantalum Ta 73 180.95 Hafnium Hf 72 178.49 Technetium Tc 43 (98.91) Hassium Hs 108 (269) Tellurium Te 52 127.60 Helium He 2 4.00 Terbium Tb 65 158.92 Holmium Ho 67 164.93 Thallium Tl 81 204.37 Hydrogen H 1 1.0079 Thorium Th 90 232.04 Indium In 49 114.82 Thulium Tm 69 168.93 Iodine I 53 126.90 Tin Sn 50 118.69 Iridium Ir 77 192.2 Titanium Ti 22 47.88 Iron Fe 26 55.85 Tungsten W 74 183.85 Krypton Kr 36 83.80 Ununbium Uub 112 (277) Lanthanum La 57 138.91 Ununnilium Uun 110 (269) Lawrencium Lr 103 (262.1) Unununium Uuu 111 (272) Lead Pb 82 207.19 Uranium U 92 238.03 Lithium Li 3 6.94 Vanadium V 23 50.94 Lutetium Lu 71 174.96 Xenon Xe 54 131.30 Magnesium Mg 12 24.31 Ytterbium Yb 70 173.04 Manganese Mn 25 54.94 Yttrium Y 39 88.91 Meitneium Mt 109 (268) Zinc Zn 30 65.37 Mendelevium Md 101 258.10 Zirconium Zr 40 91.22 The value given in parenthesis is the molar mass of the isotope of largest known half-life. Appendix III A. Specific and Molar Heat Capacities for Some Substances at 298 K and one Atmospheric Pressure Substance Specific Heat Capacity Molar Heat Capacity (J/g) (J/mol) air 0.720 20.8 water (liquid) 4.184 75.4 ammonia (gas) 2.06 35.1 hydrogen chloride 0.797 29.1 hydrogen bromide 0.360 29.1 ammonia (liquid) 4.70 79.9 ethyl alcohol (liquid) 2.46 113.16 ethylene glycol (liquid) 2.42 152.52 water (solid) 2.06 37.08 carbon tetrachloride (liquid) 0.861 132.59 chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2 F 2) 0.5980 72.35 ozone 0.817 39.2 neon 1.03 20.7 chlorine 0.477 33.8 bromine 0.473 75.6 iron 0.460 25.1 copper 0.385 24.7 aluminium 0.902 24.35 gold 0.128 25.2 graphite 0.720 8.65 B. Molar Heat Capacities for Some Gases (J/mol) Gas Cp Cv Cp - Cv Cp / Cv Monatomic* helium 20.9 12.8 argon 20.8 12.5 iodine 20.9 12.6 mercury 20.8 12.5 Diatomic† hydrogen 28.6 20.2 oxygen 29.1 20.8 nitrogen 29.0 20.7 hydrogen chloride 29.6 21.0 carbon monoxide 29.0 21.0 Triatomic† nitrous oxide 39.0 30.5 carbon dioxide 37.5 29.0 Polyatomic† ethane 53.2 44.6 8.28 8.33 8.37 8.33 8.33 8.33 8.30 8.60 8.00 8.50 8.50 8.60 1.63 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.41 1.39 1.40 1.39 1.41 1.28 1.29 1.19 *Translational kinetic energy only. †Translational, vibrational and rotational energy. Appendix IV Physical Constants Quantity Symbol Traditional Units SI Units Acceleration of gravity Atomic mass unit (1/12 the mass of 12C atom) Avogadro constant Bohr radius Boltzmann constant Charge-to-mass ratio of electron Electronic charge Electron rest mass Faraday constant Gas constant Molar volume (STP) Neutron rest mass Planck constant Proton rest mass Rydberg constant Speed of light (in a vacuum) g amu or u NA ao k e/m e m e F R Vm m n h m p R∞ c 980.6 cm/s 1.6606 × 10-24 g 6.022 ×1023 particles/mol 0.52918 C 5.2918 × 10-9 cm 1.3807 × 10-16 erg/K 1.7588 ×l08 coulomb/g 1.60219 × 10-19 coulomb 4.8033 × 10-19 esu 9.10952 ×10-28 g 0.00054859 u 96,487 coulombs/eq 23.06 kcal/volt. eq 08206. Latm molK 1987. cal mol K 22.710981 L/mol 1.67495 × 10-24 g 1.008665 u 6.6262 × 10-27 ergs 1.6726 ×10-24 g 1.007277 u 3.289 × 1015 cycles/s 2.1799 × 10-11 erg 2.9979 ×1010 cm/s (186,281 miles/second) 9.806 m/s 1.6606 × 10-27 kg 6.022 × 1023 particles/mol 5.2918 × 10-11 m 1.3807 × 10-23 J/K 1.7588 × 1011 C/kg 1.60219 × 10-19 C 9.10952 ×10-31 kg 96,487 C/mol e96,487 J/V.mol e83145 3 . kPadm molK 8.3145 J/mol.K 22.710981 × 10-3 m3/mol 22.710981 dm3/mol 1.67495 × 10-27 kg 6.6262 × 10-34 J s 1.6726 ×10-27 kg 1.0974 × 107 m-1 2.1799 × 10-18 J 2.9979 × 108 m/s π = 3.1416 2.303 R = 4.576 cal/mol K = 19.15 J/mol K e = 2.71828 2.303 RT (at 25°C) = 1364 cal/mol = 5709 J/mol ln X = 2.303 log X Appendix V Some Useful Conversion Factors Common Unit of Mass and Weight 1 pound = 453.59 grams 1 pound = 453.59 grams = 0.45359 kilogram 1 kilogram = 1000 grams = 2.205 pounds 1 gram = 10 decigrams = 100 centigrams= 1000 milligrams 1 gram = 6.022 × 1023 atomic mass units or u 1 atomic mass unit = 1.6606 × 10–24 gram 1 metric tonne = 1000 kilograms= 2205 pounds Common Unit of Volume 1 quart = 0.9463 litre 1 litre = 1.056 quarts 1 litre = 1 cubic decimetre = 1000 cubic centimetres = 0.001 cubic metre 1 millilitre = 1 cubic centimetre = 0.001 litre= 1.056 × 10-3 quart 1 cubic foot = 28.316 litres = 29.902 quarts = 7.475 gallons Common Units of Energy 1 joule = 1 ×107 ergs 1 thermochemical calorie** = 4.184 joules = 4.184 × 107 ergs = 4.129 × 10–2 litre-atmospheres = 2.612 × 1019 electron volts 1 ergs = 1 × 10–7 joule = 2.3901 × 10–8 calorie 1 electron volt = 1.6022 × 10–19 joule= 1.6022 × 10–12 erg = 96.487 kJ/mol† 1 litre-atmosphere = 24.217 calories = 101.32 joules = 1.0132 ×109 ergs 1 British thermal unit = 1055.06 joules = 1.05506 ×1010 ergs = 252.2 calories Common Units of Length 1 inch = 2.54 centimetres (exactly) 1 mile = 5280 feet = 1.609 kilometres 1 yard = 36 inches = 0.9144 metre 1 metre = 100 centimetres = 39.37 inches = 3.281 feet = 1.094 yards 1 kilometre = 1000 metres = 1094 yards = 0.6215 mile 1 Angstrom = 1.0 × 10–8 centimetre = 0.10 nanometre = 1.0 × 10–10 metre = 3.937 × 10–9 inch Common Units of Force* and Pressure 1 atmosphere = 760 millimetres of mercury = 1.013 × 105 pascals = 14.70 pounds per square inch 1 bar = 105 pascals 1 torr = 1 millimetre of mercury 1 pascal = 1 kg/ms2 = 1 N/m2 Temperature SI Base Unit: Kelvin (K) K = -273.15°C K = °C + 273.15 °F = 1.8(°C) + 32 F32°−C°= 1.8 * Force: 1 newton (N) = 1 kg m/s2, i.e.,the force that, when applied for 1 second, gives a 1-kilogram mass a velocity of 1 metre per second. ** The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.50C to 15.50C. † Note that the other units are per particle and must be multiplied by 6.022 ×1023 to be strictly comparable. Appendix VI Thermodynamic Data at 298 K INORGANIC SUBSTANCES Substance Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs Energy of formation, Entropy,* ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Aluminium Al(s) 0 0 28.33 Al3+(aq) – 524.7 –481.2 –321.7 Al2O3(s) –1675.7 –1582.3 50.92 Al(OH)3(s) –1276 — — AlCl3(s) –704.2 –628.8 110.67 Antimony SbH3(g) 145.11 147.75 232.78 SbCl3(g) –313.8 –301.2 337.80 SbCl5(g) –394.34 –334.29 401.94 Arsenic As(s), gray 0 0 35.1 As2S3(s) –169.0 –168.6 163.6 AsO4 3–(aq) –888.14 –648.41 –162.8 Barium Ba(s) 0 0 62.8 Ba2+(aq) –537.64 –560.77 9.6 BaO(s) –553.5 –525.1 70.42 BaCO3(s) –1216.3 –1137.6 112.1 BaCO3(aq) –1214.78 –1088.59 –47.3 Boron B(s) 0 0 5.86 B2O3(s) –1272.8 –1193.7 53.97 BF3(g) –1137.0 –1120.3 254.12 Bromine Br2(l) 0 0 152.23 Br2(g) 30.91 3.11 245.46 Br(g) 111.88 82.40 175.02 Br–(aq) –121.55 –103.96 82.4 HBr(g) –36.40 –53.45 198.70 BrF3(g) –255.60 –229.43 292.53 Calcium Ca(s) 0 0 41.42 Ca(g) 178.2 144.3 154.88 Ca2+(aq) –542.83 –553.58 –53.1 APPENDIX 237 Substance Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs Energy of formation, Entropy,* ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Calcium (continued) CaO(s) –635.09 –604.03 39.75 Ca(OH)2(s) –986.09 –898.49 83.39 Ca(OH)2(aq) –1002.82 –868.07 –74.5 CaCO3(s), calcite –1206.92 –1128.8 92.9 CaCO3(s), aragonite –1207.1 –1127.8 88.7 CaCO3(aq) –1219.97 –1081.39 –110.0 CaF2(s) –1219.6 –1167.3 68.87 CaF2(aq) –1208.09 –1111.15 –80.8 CaCl2(s) –795.8 –748.1 104.6 CaCl2(aq) –877.1 –816.0 59.8 CaBr2(s) –682.8 –663.6 130 CaC2(s) –59.8 –64.9 69.96 CaS(s) –482.4 –477.4 56.5 CaSO4(s) –1434.11 –1321.79 106.7 CaSO4(aq) –1452.10 –1298.10 –33.1 Carbon** C(s), graphite 0 0 5.740 C(s), diamond 1.895 2.900 2.377 C(g) 716.68 671.26 158.10 CO(g) –110.53 –137.17 197.67 CO2(g) –393.51 –394.36 213.74 CO3 2–(aq) –677.14 –527.81 –56.9 CCl4(l) –135.44 –65.21 216.40 CS2(l) 89.70 65.27 151.34 HCN(g) 135.1 124.7 201.78 HCN(l) 108.87 124.97 112.84 Cerium Ce(s) 0 0 72.0 Ce3+(aq) –696.2 –672.0 –205 Ce4+(aq) –537.2 –503.8 –301 Chlorine Cl2(g) 0 0 223.07 Cl(g) 121.68 105.68 165.20 Cl–(aq) –167.16 –131.23 56.5 HCl(g) –92.31 –95.30 186.91 HCl(aq) –167.16 –131.23 56.5 Copper Cu(s) 0 0 33.15 Cu+(aq) 71.67 49.98 40.6 Cu2+(aq) 64.77 65.49 –99.6 Cu2O(aq) –168.6 –146.0 93.14 CuO(s) –157.3 –129.7 42.63 CuSO4(s) –771.36 –661.8 109 CuSO4.5H2O(s) –2279.7 –1879.7 300.4 ** For organic compounds, a separate table is provided in continuation. (continued) 238 CHEMISTRY Substance Enthalpy of formation, ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) Gibbs Energy of formation, ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) Entropy,* SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Deuterium D2(g) D2O(g) D2O(l) 0 –249.20 –294.60 0 –234.54 –243.44 144.96 198.34 75.94 Fluorine F2(g) F–(aq) HF(g) HF(aq) 0 –332.63 –271.1 –332.63 0 –278.79 –273.2 –278.79 202.78 –13.8 173.78 –13.8 Hydrogen (see also Deuterium) H2(g) 0 H(g) 217.97 H+(aq) 0 H2O(l) –285.83 H2O(g) –241.82 H2O2(l) –187.78 H2O2(aq) –191.17 0 203.25 0 –237.13 –228.57 –120.35 –134.03 130.68 114.71 0 69.91 188.83 109.6 143.9 Iodine I2(s) I2(g) I–(aq) HI(g) 0 62.44 –55.19 26.48 0 19.33 –51.57 1.70 116.14 260.69 111.3 206.59 Iron Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) Fe3O4(s), magnetite Fe2O3(s), haematite FeS(s,α) FeS(aq) FeS2(s) 0 –89.1 –48.5 –1118.4 –824.2 –100.0 — –178.2 0 –78.90 –4.7 –1015.4 –742.2 –100.4 6.9 –166.9 27.28 –137.7 –315.9 146.4 87.40 60.29 — 52.93 Lead Pb(s) Pb2+(aq) PbO2(s) PbSO4(s) PbBr2(s) PbBr2(aq) 0 –1.7 –277.4 –919.94 –278.7 –244.8 0 –24.43 –217.33 –813.14 –261.92 –232.34 64.81 10.5 68.6 148.57 161.5 175.3 Magnesium Mg(s) Mg(g) Mg2+(aq) MgO(s) MgCO3(s) MgBr2(s) 0 147.70 –466.85 –601.70 –1095.8 –524.3 0 113.10 –454.8 –569.43 –1012.1 –503.8 32.68 148.65 –138.1 26.94 65.7 117.2 APPENDIX 239 Substance Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs Energy of formation, Entropy,* ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Mercury Hg(1) 0 0 76.02 Hg(g) 61.32 31.82 174.96 HgO(s) –90.83 –58.54 70.29 Hg2Cl2(s) –265.22 –210.75 192.5 Nitrogen N2(g) 0 0 191.61 NO(g) 90.25 86.55 210.76 N2O(g) 82.05 104.20 219.85 NO2(g) 33.18 51.31 240.06 N2O4(g) 9.16 97.89 304.29 HNO3(1) –174.10 –80.71 155.60 HNO3(aq) –207.36 –111.25 146.4 NO3– (aq) –205.0 –108.74 146.4 NH3(g) –46.11 –16.45 192.45 NH3(aq) –80.29 –26.50 111.3 NH+4 (aq) –132.51 –79.31 113.4 NH2OH(s) –114.2 — — HN3(g) 294.1 328.1 238.97 N2H4(1) 50.63 149.34 121.21 NH4NO3(s) –365.56 –183.87 151.08 NH4Cl(s) –314.43 –202.87 94.6 NH4ClO4(s) –295.31 –88.75 186.2 Oxygen O2(g) 0 0 205.14 O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.93 OH–(aq) –229.99 –157.24 –10.75 Phosphorus P(s), white 0 0 41.09 P4(g) 58.91 24.44 279.98 PH3(g) 5.4 13.4 210.23 P4O10(s) –2984.0 –2697.0 228.86 H3PO3(aq) –964.8 — — H3PO4(1) –1266.9 — — H3PO4(aq) –1277.4 –1018.7 — PCl3(1) –319.7 –272.3 217.18 PCl3(g) –287.0 –267.8 311.78 PCl5(g) –374.9 –305.0 364.6 Potassium K(s) 0 0 64.18 K(g) 89.24 60.59 160.34 K+(aq) –252.38 –283.27 102.5 KOH(s) –424.76 –379.08 78.9 KOH(aq) –482.37 –440.50 91.6 KF(s) –567.27 –537.75 66.57 240 CHEMISTRY Substance Enthalpy of formation, ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) Gibbs Energy of formation, ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) Entropy,* SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Potassium (continued) KCl(s) KBr(s) KI(s) KClO3(s) KClO4(s) K2S(s) K2S(aq) –436.75 –393.80 –327.90 –397.73 –432.75 –380.7 –471.5 –409.14 –380.66 –324.89 –296.25 –303.09 –364.0 –480.7 82.59 95.90 106.32 143.1 151.0 105 190.4 Silicon Si(s) SiO2(s,α) 0 –910.94 0 –856.64 18.83 41.84 Silver Ag(s) Ag+(aq) Ag2O(s) AgBr(s) AgBr(aq) AgCl(s) AgCl(aq) AgI(s) AgI(aq) AgNO3(s) 0 105.58 –31.05 –100.37 –15.98 –127.07 –61.58 –61.84 50.38 –124.39 0 77.11 –11.20 –96.90 –26.86 –109.79 –54.12 –66.19 25.52 –33.41 42.55 72.68 121.3 107.1 155.2 96.2 129.3 115.5 184.1 140.92 Sodium Na(s) Na(g) Na+(aq) NaOH(s) NaOH(aq) NaCl(s) NaCl(aq) NaBr(s) NaI(s) NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) 0 107.32 –240.12 –425.61 –470.11 –411.15 –407.3 –361.06 –287.78 –947.7 –1130.9 0 76.76 –261.91 –379.49 –419.15 –384.14 –393.1 –348.98 –286.06 –851.9 –1047.7 51.21 153.71 59.0 64.46 48.1 72.13 115.5 86.82 98.53 102.1 136.0 Sulphur S(s), rhombic S(s), monoclinic S2–(aq) SO2(g) SO3(g) H2SO4(l) H2SO4(aq) SO4 2–(aq) H2S(g) H2S(aq) SF6(g) 0 0.33 33.1 –296.83 –395.72 –813.99 –909.27 –909.27 –20.63 –39.7 –1209 0 0.1 85.8 –300.19 –371.06 –690.00 –744.53 –744.53 –33.56 –27.83 –1105.3 31.80 32.6 –14.6 248.22 256.76 156.90 20.1 20.1 205.79 121 291.82 APPENDIX 241 Substance Enthalpy of formation, ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) Gibbs Energy of formation, ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) Entropy,* SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Tin Sn(s), white Sn(s), gray SnO(s) SnO2(s) 0 –2.09 –285.8 –580.7 0 0.13 –256.9 –519.6 51.55 44.14 56.5 52.3 Zinc Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) ZnO(s) Zn(g) 0 –153.89 –348.28 +130.73 0 –147.06 –318.30 +95.14 41.63 –112.1 43.64 160.93 *The entropies of individual ions in solution are determined by setting the entropy of H+ in water equal to 0 and then defining the entropies of all other ions relative to this value; hence a negative entropy is one that is lower than the entropy of H+ in water. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Substance Enthalpy of Enthalpy of Gibbs Energy of combustion, formation, ΔcHJ / (kJ mol–1) ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) formation, Entropy, ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Hydrocarbons CH4(g), methane –890 –74.81 –50.72 186.26 C2H2(g), ethyne (acetylene) –1300 226.73 209.20 200.94 C2H4(g), ethene(ethylene) –1411 52.26 68.15 219.56 C2H6(g), ethane –1560 –84.68 –32.82 229.60 C3H6(g), propene (propylene) –2058 20.42 62.78 266.6 C3H6(g), cyclopropane –2091 53.30 104.45 237.4 C3H8(g), propane –2220 –103.85 –23.49 270.2 C4H10(g), butane –2878 –126.15 –17.03 310.1 C5H12(g), pentane –3537 –146.44 –8.20 349 C6H6(l), benzene –3268 49.0 124.3 173.3 C6H6(g) –3302 — — — C7H8(l), toluene –3910 12.0 113.8 221.0 C7H8(g) –3953 — — — C6H12(l), cyclohexane –3920 –156.4 26.7 204.4 C6H12(g), –3953 — — — C8H18(l), octane –5471 –249.9 6.4 358 Alcohols and phenols CH3OH(l), methanol –726 –238.86 –166.27 126.8 CH3OH(g) –764 –200.66 –161.96 239.81 C2H5OH(l), ethanol –1368 –277.69 –174.78 160.7 C2H5OH(g) –1409 –235.10 –168.49 282.70 C6H5OH(s), phenol –3054 –164.6 –50.42 144.0 242 CHEMISTRY Substance Enthalpy of Enthalpy of combustion, formation, ΔcHJ / (kJ mol–1) ΔfHJ / (kJ mol–1) Gibbs Energy of formation, Entropy, ΔfGJ / (kJ mol–1) SJ /(J K–1 mol–1) Carboxylic acid HCOOH(l), formic acid CH3COOH(l), acetic acid CH3COOH (aq) (COOH)2(s), oxalic acid C6H5COOH(s), benzoic acid –255 –875 — –254 –3227 –424.72 –484.5 –485.76 –827.2 –385.1 –361.35 –389.9 –396.64 –697.9 –245.3 128.95 159.8 86.6 120 167.6 Aldehydes and ketones HCHO(g), methanal (formaldehyde) CH3CHO(l), ethanal (acetaldehyde) CH3CHO(g) CH3COCH3(l), propanone (acetone) –571 –1166 –1192 –1790 –108.57 –192.30 –166.19 –248.1 –102.53 –128.12 –128.86 –155.4 218.77 160.2 250.3 200 Sugars C6H12O6(s), glucose C6H12O6(aq) C6H12O6(s), fructose C12H22O11(s), sucrose –2808 — –2810 –5645 –1268 — –1266 –2222 –910 –917 — –1545 212 — — 360 Nitrogen compounds CO(NH2)2(s), urea C6H5NH2(l), aniline NH2CH2COOH(s), glycine CH3NH2(g), methylamine –632 –3393 –969 –1085 –333.51 31.6 –532.9 –22.97 –197.33 149.1 –373.4 32.16 104.60 191.3 103.51 243.41 Appendix VII Standard potentials at 298 K in electrochemical order Reduction half-reaction EJ /V Reduction half-reaction EJ /V H4XeO6 + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ XeO3 + 3H2O +3.0 Cu+ + e – ⎯→ Cu +0.52 F2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2F– +2.87 NiOOH + H2O + e– ⎯→ Ni(OH)2 + OH– +0.49 O3 + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ O2 + H2O +2.07 Ag2CrO4 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Ag + CrO2– 4 +0.45 S2O2– 8 + 2e– ⎯→ 2SO2– 4 Ag+ + e – ⎯→ Ag+ Co3+ + e – ⎯→ Co2+ +2.05 +1.98 +1.81 O2 + 2H2O + 4e– ⎯→ 4OH– ClO– 4 + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ ClO– 3 + 2OH– [Fe(CN)6]3– + e – ⎯→ [Fe(CN)6]4– +0.40 +0.36 +0.36 H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ 2H2O Au+ + e – ⎯→ Au Pb4+ + 2e– ⎯→ Pb2+ 2HClO + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cl2 + 2H2O Ce4+ + e – ⎯→ Ce3+ 2HBrO + 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ Br2 + 2H2O MnO – 4 + 8H+ + 5e– ⎯→ Mn2+ + 4H2O Mn3+ + e – ⎯→ Mn2+ +1.78 +1.69 +1.67 +1.63 +1.61 +1.60 +1.51 +1.51 Cu2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cu Hg2Cl2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Hg + 2Cl– AgCl + e– ⎯→ Ag + Cl– Bi3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Bi SO4 2– + 4H+ + 2e– ⎯→ H2SO3 + H2O Cu2+ + e – ⎯→ Cu+ Sn4+ + 2e– ⎯→ Sn2+ AgBr + e– ⎯→ Ag + Br– Ti4+ + e – ⎯→ Ti3+ +0.34 +0.27 +0.27 +0.20 +0.17 +0.16 +0.15 +0.07 0.00 Au3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Au Cl2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Cl– Cr2O2– 7 + 14H+ + 6e– ⎯→ 2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1.40 +1.36 +1.33 2H+ + 2e– ⎯→ H2Fe3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Fe 0.0 by definition –0.04 O3 + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ O2 + 2OH– +1.24 O2 + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ HO– 2 + OH– –0.08 O2 + 4H+ + 4e– ⎯→ 2H2O +1.23 Pb2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Pb –0.13 ClO– 4 + 2H+ +2e– ⎯→ ClO– 3 + 2H2O +1.23 In+ + e – ⎯→ In –0.14 MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e– ⎯→ Mn2+ + 2H2O +1.23 Sn2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Sn –0.14 Pt2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Pt +1.20 AgI + e– ⎯→ Ag + I– –0.15 Br2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2Br– +1.09 Ni2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ni –0.23 Pu4+ + e – ⎯→ Pu3+ +0.97 V3+ + e – ⎯→ V2+ –0.26 NO– 3 + 4H+ + 3e– ⎯→ NO + 2H2O +0.96 Co2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Co –0.28 2Hg2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Hg2+ 2 +0.92 In3+ + 3e– ⎯→ In –0.34 ClO– + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ Cl– + 2OH– +0.89 Tl+ + e – ⎯→ Tl –0.34 Hg2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Hg NO– 3 + 2H+ + e – ⎯→ NO2 + H2O Ag+ + e – ⎯→ Ag Hg2+ 2 +2e– ⎯→ 2Hg Fe3+ + e – ⎯→ Fe2+ BrO– + H2O + 2e– ⎯→ Br– + 2OH– Hg2SO4 +2e– ⎯→ 2Hg + SO2– 4 MnO2– 4 + 2H2O + 2e– ⎯→ MnO2 + 4OH– MnO– 4 + e – ⎯→ MnO2– 4 I2 + 2e– ⎯→ 2I– I – 3 + 2e– ⎯→ 3I– +0.86 +0.80 +0.80 +0.79 +0.77 +0.76 +0.62 +0.60 +0.56 +0.54 +0.53 PbSO4 + 2e– ⎯→ Pb + SO2– 4 Ti3+ + e – ⎯→ Ti2+ Cd2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cd In2+ + e – ⎯→ In+ Cr3+ + e – ⎯→ Cr2+ Fe2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Fe In3+ + 2e– ⎯→ In+ S + 2e– ⎯→ S2– In3+ + e – ⎯→ In2+ U4+ + e – ⎯→ U3+ Cr3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Cr Zn2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Zn –0.36 –0.37 –0.40 –0.40 –0.41 –0.44 –0.44 –0.48 –0.49 –0.61 –0.74 –0.76 Appendix continued Reduction half-reaction EJ /V Reduction half-reaction EJ /V Cd(OH)2 + 2e– ⎯→ Cd + 2OH– –0.81 La3+ + 3e– ⎯→ La –2.52 2H2O + 2e– ⎯→ H2 + 2OH– –0.83 Na+ + e – ⎯→ Na –2.71 Cr2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Cr –0.91 Ca2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ca –2.87 Mn2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Mn –1.18 Sr2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Sr –2.89 V2+ + 2e– ⎯→ V –1.19 Ba2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ba –2.91 Ti2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ti –1.63 Ra2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Ra –2.92 Al3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Al –1.66 Cs+ + e – ⎯→ Cs –2.92 U3+ + 3e– ⎯→ U –1.79 Rb+ + e – ⎯→ Rb –2.93 Sc3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Sc –2.09 K+ +e – ⎯→ K –2.93 Mg2+ + 2e– ⎯→ Mg –2.36 Li+ + e – ⎯→ Li –3.05 Ce3+ + 3e– ⎯→ Ce –2.48

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